ANTH 2820 Lecture 6: Lec. 6

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2.7.2017
ANTH 2820 Lecture 6
NEOLITHIC ERA
True start of farming and domestication
- Consequences of staying still and farming/domesticating animals = exhausting resources
and creating dead zones
- Options:
o Change use of resources (favor certain species)
o Intensify food sources (domesticate plant and animals)
Lower densities, anyway to take what we have and make it better
i.e. wild wheat liked it but didn’t serve us enough, take more seeds
and harvest them, weed around it, etc.
could lead to the domestication of plants and farming
o Become mobile (thought it would work, but it didn’t)
o Lower population
Certainly did not do that because population continued to climb
Values shifted more children, bigger communities, and staying in
one place
Natufian Period
- Dead zones left them with a choice: leave the place you’re in or go more mobile
o Ended up become mobile hunting and gathering
Shows that it is not a steady trajectory; i.e. once you become
sedentary, you don’t necessarily have to stay that way
NEOLITHIC PERIOD
Brings about really dramatic change
- Pre-pottery Neolithic Period [PPN]
o Beginning Start of farming communities
Particularly wheat and barley, but also chickpeas
o Later part of the PPN start to domesticate animals
Esp. sheep and goats
- Pottery Neolithic Period
o Beginning to domesticate cattle
Not sudden change or one decision they made
- Happened very gradually over a period of several thousand years that they probably
got locked into
o Likely happened accidentally in terms of long-term consequences
o Didn’t think oh, we are going to have to work so much harder, but brought
back seeds of things they liked, started as only small portion of food, then
grew
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