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Lecture 35

BIOL 2200 Lecture 35: Lecture 34 Notes Nervous System

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BIOL 2200
Jessamyn Manson

4/19/17 Lecture 34 Notes The Nervous System • Neurons o o Receive and transmit information within the body o Cell body – contains most organelles o Dendrites – receive signals from other neurons o Axons – transmit signals to other neurons o Axon hillock – where signal is generated o Synaptic terminals – branches that form the synapses o Synapse – neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) o Neuron providing signal/ sending signal – presynaptic cell o Neuron recieiving signal – postsynaptic cell • Information Processing o 3 Stages: o Sensory input: Observation made about the environment ▪ Function of sensory nuerons o Integration: nervous system processes information and decides on action ▪ Not always, but often performed by interneurons, brain integrates information and considers immediate context and experience o Motor input: response to observation ▪ Usually associated with motor neurons, triggers output such as muscle and gland activity • Information Processing o Neurons for integration part of CNS o Neurons that carry information to CNS part of PNS o Nerves – bundles of axons • Nervous System o Sensory cells appeared BYA, responded to stimulus o 525-535 MYA – During the Cambrian explosion, more organized nervous system o Simple nervous system for early animals ▪ Cnidarians – nerve net (thin bundles of axons) regulates gastrovascular cavity ▪ Sea star – specific routes for information, but limited central processing o Nervous system more specialized in bilaterians ▪ Cephalization – having a head allows organization by clustering of sensory neurons and interneurons ▪ Simple CNS – brain and nerve cords ▪ More complex CNS – includes ganglia (clusters of neurons) and regional specialization • Peripheral Nervous System o o Transmits information to and from CNS o Importa
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