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Lecture 15

BIOL 3050 Lecture 15: last bio lecture!!

4 Pages

Course Code
BIOL 3050
Condron Barry

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Lecture on Dec. 3 (last lecture!) — Degenerative Diseases: CURRENT ARTICLES: • #6 “killer” (through secondary effects technically) - 84,767 deaths/year • study of suicide in 1970’s → ketamine (NMDA antagonist) • dopamine: reward of aversion to odor; study in fruit flies: odor → ORN → glomerulus → mushroom bodies (hippocampus) <= dopamine (light • activated) • memory = # of synapses (does it learn something? → yes it does) • genome-editing (conference going on in DC currently) → ethical debate sort of: • APP mutation: can have Alzheimer’s at age 30! (get rid of this gene?) Klotho gene variant → NMDA receptor expression; gives you 6% boost of IQ (give • this gene?) ALZHEIMER’S (AD): • increase of death from AD associated with decrease in cancer/cardiovascular disease? • as we get healthier → live longer → see more of the disease! • loss of synapses, axons, cell death and appearance of plaques/tangles (roughly occurs in that progression) • associated w/ age • memory loss → retrograde (remembering things from way back when) and anterograde (ability to form new memories) declarative memory → available to consciousness; daily episodes, words and their • meanings, history (more study on this type of memory; more noticeable) • non-declarative memory → generally not available in consciousness; motor skills, priming cues, associations, puzzle-solving skills 1 hippocampus → store short-term & intermediate memories; anterograde memory (if • you lose this, you won’t be able to store any new memories) • basal forebrain → ACh; cholinergic neurons (one of first neurons to die in AD) - in charge of cognitive/memory function • dial up or dial down the functionality of your brain • Robin Williams had very specific loss of these neurons! • patient HM → had hippocampus removed (able to study its effects): • was no longer able to form new memories; has about 8-10 seconds of memory before losing it • work w/ mice → Morris Water Maze: • put mouse in cloudy water w/ platform and various patterns around chamber • mouse will swim around until find platform; put in an hour later will generally just go back to platform • this shows memory developing in mouse by use of visual cues in the chamber • test NMDA receptor, LTP and hippocampus is required • memories stored in short-term in hippocampus and transferred (consolidated) to cortex (i.e. memory efferent copy) • definitive diagnosis of AD: • A-beta 42 (variant fragment of APP) → mai
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