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Lecture 3

ASIAN AM 160 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Pass Laws, Californio

2 pages56 viewsFall 2016

Asian American Studies
Course Code
Cheng Cindy

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Post-Conquest California: Discovery of Gold
Sutter’s Fort center of holdings
oPart living quarters and supply shop for cattle ranch
oRan on forced Indian labor
In 1840s, Americans who came to California through Oregon settled near Sutter, away from
Californios along coast
oMany worked for Sutter
January 1848, James Marshall found flakes of gold at Sutter’s Mill
Tried to keep gold secret
By autumn 1848, news spread all over U.S. and world
80% of 49ers Americans from every state
13% from Mexico (Sonora) and west coast of Latin American (Chile and Peru)
7% from Europe (France, Germany, Ireland) and Asia (China)
Immigrants to California
Majority of immigrants were men
Most “sojourners” wanting to get rich quick and return home
By 1852, Chinese at about 25,000, largest non-white group; composition and population similar
to other immigrant groups
Establishing Rights of “Citizens”
Violence against non-white minorities
o1849 rampage on “little Chile”
oKilled a woman; several men beaten
Banned Chinese and Mexicans from key digging sites
oMany worked in more undesirable sites
oMany Chinese, driven out of mining, opened restaurants, laundries, and dry good stores
Native Americans continue to be driven off land by armed miners
o1849-1879, about 4,500 Native Americans died in violent skirmishes
oEven more died of diseases
1850 Foreign Miners Tax (First Law about foreigners) IMPORTANT
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