LINGUIS 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Alveolar Ridge, Vocal Folds, Vocal Tract

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29 Sep 2017
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HW: Read 2.0-2.2, do English Consonant tutorial (Canvas)
Link to IPA: http://www.internationalphoneticalphabet.org/ipa-sounds/ipa-chart-with-sounds/
Subfield of Phonetics
Lecture 1: 9/11
Phonetics- the scientific study of the inventory and structure of the sounds of human
language; sounds used in speech
Articulatory- what we do to make the sounds (mouth, tongue, etc)
Acoustic- physical properties of the sound waves themselves
Auditory- perception of speech sounds (brain, ears, nerves, etc)
How humans produce speech
1. Airstream mechanism- moving air/something to get the air moving (out);
lungs/diaphragm, pressing/squeezing air out of the body; pulmonicà egressive
2. Sound source- pressing air through larynx (structure in throat that constricts air flow,
causes vibration)
3. Filters- the moveable parts (in your mouth)- tongue, lips, nasal cavity, etc; creates a
cavity in which the sounds bounce around
Larynx
Flaps of tissue creating vocal folds
Muscles and ligaments that move the structure and effects the folds and opening
as air passes through
Glottis- the opening/hole which air passes through
Different shapes will create different types of sounds
States of the glottis- changing gives different sounds
Voiceless- muscles have pulled vocal folds far apart, large hole/glottis; folds do
not vibrate
Ie: f (fall), s (sound) and th (think) sounds
Voiced- push vocal folds close together (not closed), vibrating as air is pushed
over/through them
Ie: V (vest), z (zoom), th (then)
Whispering- articulators are the same but change glottis to “whisper state”
Press vocal chords together so they do not vibrate
Pull back end/back of vocal folds- creates small hole that small amount of
air can pass through
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HW: Read 2.0-2.2, do English Consonant tutorial (Canvas)
Link to IPA: http://www.internationalphoneticalphabet.org/ipa-sounds/ipa-chart-with-sounds/
*States of the Glottis
Sagittal view = side view
See different cavities and shapes
Articulators
Important parts of your body that you can use to make speech sounds
Lips
Teeth
Tongue
Alveolar ridge- behind teeth, roof of mouth
Palate (hard palate)- hard, boney dome-like roof of mouth
Velum (soft palate)- soft, further back in mouth
Uvula- dangly thingy
Pharynx- back of the throat (root of tongue)
Glottis
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