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Lecture 21

SOC 134 Lecture 21: Lecture 21

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University of Wisconsin - Madison
SOC 134
Melanie Murchison

Lecture 21 Migration and Urbanization • Mexicans o Many moved north for agricultural and manufacturing jobs o Whites blamed them for depression era and unemployment ▪ By the end of 1930’s, 2 million had been repatriated to Mexico ▪ More than half were U.S citizens • 1/3 of all U.S Mexicans were repatriated • Native Americans o Many tribes were terminated between 1953 and 1973 o By 1990, more than 60% had been relocated to cities • Blacks o Great migration occurred from rural south to urban north ▪ Between 1910-1960, over 4.5 million blacks migrated north o Blacks were exploited as a cheap and expendable labor force o They were cordoned off to restricted urban districts ▪ Rundown urban neighborhoods became overcrowded ▪ Districts were filled with crime, disease, and poverty ▪ Blacks were kept a safe distance from surrounding white populations The Ghetto • A set of neighborhoods that are exclusively inhabited by members of one group, within which virtually all members of that group in that particular city live • The defining characteristic is advanced marginally o Severe spatial and social segregation or residents ▪ marked by exclusion from economic prosperity, national security, and state welfare services Origins of the Ghetto • Most housing was built for whites in the 1930’s-1940’s o created a housing shortage for minorities ▪ Federal Housing Administration denied loans to non- whites ▪ Real estate brokers refused to show designated areas to non-whites • Real estate lenders used redlining to refuse loans are mortgages in non-white neighborhoods • White home sellers left covenants in deeds o Not allowing the selling of the house to non-whites • Slumlords made money by ignoring housing repairs and occupying codes, and by charging inflated rent o In 1960, the median rent for whites was $64, white for blacks it was $76 • Ghettos reinforced racial inequality o They served convincing evidence to white homeowners that blacks would ruin their neighborhoods o They justified disinvestment in black neighborhoods Urban Renewal • “A handy device for razing slums” • destroyed entire non-white communities o forced millions to lose their homes ▪ packed people into other slums • First time in US history that “the government was given the right to seize individual’s property, not for its own use, but to sell to other companies for their use and profit” 2 1968 Fair Housing Act • Passed after MLK assassination o last of the 4 great Civil Rights Acts • Outlawed refusal to sell or rent a dwelling on account of race or color • Outlawed racial discrimination in terms or conditions of sale or rental of homes • Outlawed indication of racial preference on advertising of dwelling sale or rental • Weak enforcement White Flight • Whites moved out to the suburbs beginning in the 1950’s • Federal programs encouraged suburbanization • White flight increased with deindustrialization and the Civil Rights Movement • In 1940, only 1/3 of metropolitan residents lived in suburbs o By 1970, majority of metropolitan residents lived in suburbs ▪ The poorest of the poor were left behind in the cities • Some white working class and European immigrants couldn’t afford to flee o They warded off nonwhite families with intimidation, protests,
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