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Virginia Commonwealth University
BIOL 101
Paul A.Smith

Bio 101 Notes: 8/30: Chemistry: -2.1: Everything is made of atoms -atoms cannot be subdivided any further without losing its essential properties -forces of attraction between positive and negative charges hold the fast-moving electrons close to the nucleus. -elements cannot be broken down chemically into any other substances -25 elements found in you body and the BIG FOUR -hydrogen- 9.5% - carbon- 18.5% - oxygen-65% -nitrogen- 3% -everything around us, living, or not, is made from atoms, the smallest unit into which material can be divided -atoms all have the same general structure -chemical characteristics of an atom depend upon the number of electrons in its outermost shells, the no. of p , the no. of n , and the no. of e -2.3: Atoms can bond together to form molecules or cpds -hydrogen bonds: are formed between the slightly positively charged hydrogen atoms of one water molecule and the slightly negatively charged atoms of another -covalent bonds: strong bonds formed when two atoms share e - -2.4: A molecule’s shape gives it unique characteristics -molecular personalities -a molecule’s shape gives it unique characteristics 9/4: -2.6: Water has unusual properties that make it critical to life -cohesion: -ex: capillary action -hydrogen bonds make water cohesive -as each water molecule evaporates, it pulls additional water up through the tree because of the cohesion caused by hydrogen bonds -high surface tension -large heat capacity -heat from the sun breaks bonds as energy -human body composition is 60% water > helps maintain a relatively constant body temperature. -since water is able to take heat/energy and use it to form/break bonds, water takes a larger amount of heat/energy to increase temperature -low density as a solid 1 -frozen water: hydrogen bonding arranges wter molecules into a crystalline lattice, keeping them slightly farther apart and thus less dense -liquid water: water molecules move about freely, allowing them to be closer to one another -good solvent -polar molecule -able to dissolve most substances -i.e.: NaCl -2.7: Living systems are highly sensitice to acidic and basic conditions -amount of H+ in a solution is a measure of its acidity and is called pH -hydrogen and hydroxide ions are inversely related -acids: fluids that have a greater proportion of H+ ions to OH- ions -H+ ions are very reactive -acids can donate H+ ions to other chemicals -strong acids are corrosive to metals -acids break down food in your digestive tract -acids are generally sour in taste -bases: fluids that have a greater proportion of OH- ions to H+ ions -OH- ions bind with H+ ions, neutralizing acids -strong bases are caustic to you skin -bases can be found in many household cleaners -bases are generally bitter in taste and soapy -antacids: strong bases (ex: baking soda, seltzer, milk of magnesia) -Blood pH -can quickly absorb excess H+ ions to keep a solution from becoming too acidic -can quickly release H+ ions to counteract any increases in OH- concentration -Macromolecules (BIG FOUR: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) -macromolecules are built/made up of more than one subunit -function as chains -2.8 Carbohydrates are macromolecules that function as a fuel source for cellular mechanisms -Types of carbohydrates: -monosaccharide: one individual monomer -ex: simple sugars (ex: glucose (C6H12 6 glucose is the most important carbohydrate to living organisms), fructose (fruit sugar), and galactose) -disaccharides: two individual monomers -ex: sucrose (table sugar), lactose -polysaccharides: more than two monomers -ex: starches (potatoes, corn) , cellulose -made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. -carbon-hydrogen bonds of carbohydrates store a freat deal of energy and are easily broken down by organisms 2 -typically have as many carbons molecules as water molecules 9/6: -2.9: Simple sugars are the most effective source of energy -monosaccharides -2-7 carbon atoms -glucose -most carbohydrates ultimately converted into glucose -blood sugar -fructose -Carbohydrates—several categories, based on their size and their composition. The simplest—monosaccharides or simple sugars. Contain anywhere from three to seven carbon atoms. When broken down, the products usually are not carbohydrates. Two common monosaccharides are glucose, found in the sap and fruit of many plants, and fructose, found primarily in fruits and vegetables, as well as honey. Fructose is the sweetest of all naturally occurring sugars. The suffix -ose tells us that a substance is a carbohydrate. -2.10: Complec carbohydrates are time-released packets of energy -more than one sugar (monosaccharide) unit -in contrast to simple sugars, complex carbohydrates contain more than one sugar unit. -disaccharides -polysaccharides -sucrose -starch -lactose -cellulose -Depending on how the simple sugars are bonded together, they may function as “time-release” stores of energy or as structural materials that may not be digestible to animals at all. -Chemical Fuel -Proteins do the work: they come in the form of enzymes and free up molecules from the chain so they can be used as energy -Starch vs Glycogen -both are made of glucose - Starch: found in plants -Glycogen: found in animals aka “animal starch” -Starch -more than hundreds of glucose molecules joined together -primary form of energy storage in plants found in their roots and other tissues -barley, wheat, rye, corn, and rice -because of its shape it does not stimulate the sweetness receptors on the tongue -Glycogen stores energy in your muscles and liver and is a complex carbohydrate AKA “animal starch” 3 -more branched than starch and carries more glucose unites linked together -Relative amounts of complex carbohydrates and simple sugars in foods cause them to have very different effects when you eat them -2.11: Not all carbohydrates are digestible -chitin -crustacean and insect shells -cellulose- fiber -2.12: Lipids are macromolecules with several functions, includ
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