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Fashion Design and Merchandising
FASH 250

FASH 290 Class #3 Boardnotes: Natural Cellulose Fibers –chapter 4 Table: 4-2 All cellulose fibers have good absorbency. The ability to withstand high temperatures, have good conductivity, are harmed by mineral acids that can damage cellulose fibers. The basic monomer of cellulose is glucose. Seed Fibers: grows within a pod or boll from developing seeds. Cotton: has a combination of properties – pleasing in appearance, comfort, easy care, moderate cost, & durability – makes cotton ideal for warm weather apparel, active wear, work clothes, upholstery, draperies, area rugs, towels, and bedding. -China 32%, India 21.8%, USA 12.2% > important cash crop in more than 80 countries. 52% worldwide demand ½ - 2 inches length range Lumen: central canal, through which nourishment travels during fiber development. Convolutions: ribbon like twists that characterize cotton. Long staple cotton may have about 300 convulsions per inch; short staple cotton has less than 200.  Cotton fibers may vary from 16-20 micron. diameter  Cotton is a medium strength fiber, w/a dry breaking tenacity of 3.5 to 4.0g/d (grams per denier). 30% stronger when wet = may be handled roughly during laundering/use. Low elasticity/high abrasion resistance. 19 staple lengths: staple length affects how fiber is handled during spinning process, & relates to fiber fineness & fiber tensile strength. Longer fibers are finer & make stronger yarns. 1. Short staple:  ¾”, grown in India & Eastern Asia 2. Uplands: 97% of the US crop. Medium staple: 7/8 – 1 ¼” 3. Long staple: 1 3/8 – 1 ½” (Egyptian, pima, sea Island) believed to be higher quality & are used to produce softer, smoother, stronger, & more lustrous fabrics. Hydroxyl units Mercerization (treating yarns or fabric with sodium Hydroxide -NaOH): causes permanent physical change. Fiber swells & creates a rounder cross section. Mercerization increases absorbency & improves the dye-ability of cotton yarns and fabric. Organic cotton: produced following the state fiber-certification standards on land where organic farming practices have been used for at least 3 years. No synthetic commercial pesticides or fertilizers are used in organic farming. Twice as much to purchase & grow than conventional cotton. Does not have as big of a yield as conventional cotton, more bug damage. Transitional cotton: produced on land where organic farming is practiced, but the 3 year minimum has not been met. Green Cotton: cotton that has been washed w/ mild soaps but NO bleaching or dyes, except possibly natural dyes. Color grown cotton: produce less fiber per acre, but sell for about twice as much as white cotton. Conventional cotton – all other cottons. Uses agricultural chem., fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, extensive water. Environmental impact cotton has: renewable resource! - Conventional cotton relies heavily on agricultural chemicals to fertilize soil, fight insects, & disease, control plant growth, & strip leaves for harvest. Soil Erosion by tilling. - Water intensive crop can upset water table or water level in soil. Water use in irrigation/cleaning product before turning it into yarn. Bleaching cotton terrible for environment.  Cotton feels very comfortable to skin because of its high absorbency, soft hand, & good heat/electrical conductivity. Static buildup is not a problem. Moisture regain of 7 to 11%. Cotton is good for use in hot/humid weather.  Appearance retention is moderate. Very low resiliency (the ability of fabric to spring back quickly into shape after being bent, stretched, or deformed).  Care: cotton can be washed with strong detergents & requires no special care during washing & drying. They should be stored clean & dry, otherwise mildew can form. Harm
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