Sex and Gender
o Assigned at birth
o Primary Sex Characteristics
o Secondary Sex Characteristics
o “Anatomy is Destiny” –Sigmund Freud
o Gender Identity (Internal)
o Gender Expression (External)
o Socially Constructed
o Gender Socialization
Begins before birth
Reinforced by families and peer groups
Reinforced by social institutions
We have to learn gender
o Gender Roles
“A set of social norms about the types of behaviors that are acceptable,
appropriate, or desirable for people based on their sex”
What does it mean to be a man?
To be masculine?
What does it mean to be a woman?
To be feminine?
o Gender as Performance
How do we “accomplish” gender?
Social Underpinnings of Gender Inequality
Addressing Gender Inequality in the U.S.
o Feminism Liberal
o Women’s Rights movement
Gender and Work
o Workplace Discrimination
o The Feminization of Professions and “Pink Collar Jobs”
o The Gender Wage Gap and the Motherhood Penalty
o Glass Ceiling and Glass Escalator
o Sexual Harassment
Gender in the Home
o The Second Shift
o Unpaid Labor
o Emotional Labor