MUSC 213 Lecture 9: Romantic Period

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29 Jun 2017
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German poet, novelist, dramatist, scientist, painter, etc.
Defined romantic as a subjective portrayal in literature
More emotional than intellectual
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1794
-
1832)
Idea that it's irrational, disordered, relies on extremes, pursuit of the unique
Increased richness of tonal vocabulary, more diverse/dissonant harmonies
Industrial Revolution, middle class becoming more prominent, switch from agrarian to
urban
Romantic is a literary/philosophical term
Philosophical outlook
Rights of the individuals
Rise of nationalism, nation
-
state
Increase in size of the middle class
Social currents
Box office/middle class most important
Patronage of music
Music becomes art, a means of escape
Function of music in society
Contrasts with 18th
-
Century
Trade and merchants
Growth of the middle class
Universal education
Enlightened despots
Revolutionary movements
Important social considerations
Freedom of individual feeling
Politically revolutionary sympathies
Breakdown of social barriers
Interest in nature
Interest in the supernatural
Interest in exoticism (the "other")
Tied in with national identity
Fascination with the past
Focus on nationalism
Breakdown of the barriers between the arts
Hallmarks of Romanticism
Romanticism & 19th
-
Century Music
Music is the art that is the most free
Popular theatre
Audience starting to call the shots
Increasing sense of a canon of pieces from dead composers
Rise of public concerts
Changed image/social status of musicians
Means for escape
Change in image/role of music
Change in the patronage system
Place of Music in the Romantic Period
Romantic
Wednesday, October 26, 2016 11:27 AM
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Change in the patronage system
Music appreciation classes
Melody
-
emotional, demonstrative
Harmony
-
much chromatism
-
> breakdown of the tonal system (late in the century)
Rhythm/meter
-
much contrast, rubato
Dynamics
-
change is important
Tone color/timbre
-
much expansion
Forms
-
classic
-
period forms expanded or changed, through
-
composed
Symphonic poem, lieder, character piece
Genres
-
first build on Classic Period genres; also developed new genres
Has meaning beyond music
Musical description of a story or poem
New approach: Program music
CHARACTERISTICS
Poetry by major German poets
Piano is important, piano and voice almost become a duet
True ensemble (piano and voice)
Vocal line is independent of the accompaniment
Tinges of Romanticism: word painting, etc.
Forms of the songs: strophic, modified strophic, through
-
composed
Important elements of lied
Franz Schubert
Robert Schumann
Clara Schumann
Johannes Brahms
Hugo Wolf
Gustav Mahler
Important lieder composers
Traditional background
Lots of classic orchestral music
9 operas, 8 symphonies
Song cycles
Supported by a circle of friends
Wasn't well known at the time
Eked out a living
Schubert (1797
-
1828)
Involved in literature, literary background
Wrote poetry
Interested in word/music relationships throughout life
Extra
-
musical meanings in his music
Successful composer
Married to Clara Schumann
Went insane, attempted suicide, manic depressive
Robert Schumann (1810
-
1856)
Schumann lieder more introspective, full of longing
Uses more chromatism
Interludes, postludes, etc. more subtle
Piano comments on the action
Piano role more prominent
Schumann vs. Schubert
Clara Schumann (1819
-
1896)
Song (Lied) of the Romantic Period
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Virtuoso pianist, father taught her
Robert took lessons with her dad, who didn't approve
Basically stopped composing because she had to take care of 8 kids
Went back to performing after Robert died
One of the first 19th
-
century musicians to bring older music back
Character pieces for piano, chamber music, one piano concerto
Clara Schumann (1819
-
1896)
Frequently put together in sets
New genre: character piece
Franz Schubert
Robert Schumann
Frederic Chopin
Louis Moreau Gottschalk
Franz Liszt
Important composers
Made his living as a teacher and writer, not as a performer
Literally represents characters
Eusebius (dreamy)
Florestan (quixotic, impetuous)
Raro (wise)
Pseudonyms and alter
-
egos
Clara (Chiarina)
Paganini
Chopin
Estrella
Other characters
Most famous set: Carnaval
Piano music fairly dense, introspective
3 piano sonatas, 1 concerto, lots of character pieces
Schumann
Supported by patrons in Parisian salon society
Had tuberculosis
Taught music, sold it
Scandalous relationship with George Sand (Aurore Lucile Dupin)
Waltzes, polonaises, mazurkas
Etudes
Preludes
Ballades
Impromptus
Nocturnes
3 sonatas, 2 concertos, lots of character pieces
Wanted to use the entire keyboard, interested in tone color, timbre, pitch
Floratura
-
decoration that singgers sing
Sounds introspective and improvisatory, pedal, rubato
Chopin (1810
-
1849)
From New Orleans, French native language
Incorporated African
-
American rhythms in his music
Wrote operas and symphonies, program character pieces
Gottschalk (1829
-
1869)
Did a lot of touring, virtuoso, started performing at age 11
Studied in Vienna with Salieri
Franz Liszt (1814
-
1882)
Piano Music of the 19th Century
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