Stop and Frisk
- Terry vs. Ohio (1969)
o Where stop and frisk came from.
- Reasonable Suspicion
o (Something less than probable cause but more than mere suspicion).
- Investigative Detention
o Seizure that is limited in purpose to investigate.
Basis for Stop
- Personal Observation
o Anything that a police officer sees that is a suspicious activity.
- Informant Information
o When the officer doesn’t personal observe something but an informant does.
▪ The officer has to look at the totality of the circumstances in regards to the
informant (basis of knowledge, if the informant is a criminal etc.
- Anonymous Tip, with Corroboration.
o An anonymous tip alone= no reasonable suspicion.
o The police have to corroborate the information. They have to collect additional
information in order to act on the tip.
- Drug Courier Profile
o A profile about what a typical drug courier looks like.
▪ What they tend to wear, drive, etc.
▪ May be used to develop reasonable suspicion.
▪ What is one thing that can never be used for this profile: race, ethnicity.
• This violates the 14 amendment.
▪ Creates the level of suspicion so that they are able to take action.
Duration of Stop
- 90 minutes to search luggage.
o The court said that this is too long to search someone’s luggage.
o U.S. vs. Place (1983).
- Removal from public to private area
o Not okay because the public to private place changes the encounter. Then it
becomes more like an arrest.
o Florida vs. Royer (1983)
- 27 hours for drug courier.
o This is okay because under the circumstances, this was the amount of time that