BIO 1030 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Semipermeable Membrane, Passive Transport, Facilitated Diffusion

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BIO 1030 Lecture 12
Notes
A lower activation energy makes a reaction easier and faster
3 ways to enter a cell
o Passive transport
o Active transport
o Bulk transport
Passive transport
o No energy required for simple diffusion
o Molecules move down their concentration gradient until equilibrium is reached
o Cell does not expend additional energy
Molecules already in motion
o Some molecules slip between phospholipids
o Facilitated diffusion
Others use transport protein specific to molecule
Water uses aquaporin
o Explains faster than expected transport rate
Solution
o Contains solute and solvent
Osmosis
o Diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane
o Net movement of water from beaker (higher water concentration) to tube
(lower water concentration)
o Solution inside tube rises until equal concentration of water
Effect of osmosis on cells
o Isotonic solution
Cell neither gains nor loses water
Concentration of water is same on both sides of the membrane
0.9% saline isotonic to red blood cells
o Hypotonic solution
Concentration of water outside greater than inside the cell
Cells gain water
Animal cells may lyse or burst
Plant cells use this to remain turgid
o Hypertonic solution
Concentration of water outside cell less than inside cell
Cell loses water
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