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Lecture 40

BIO 1030 Lecture 40: BIO 1030 Lecture 40

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BIO 1030
Dr.Robert Thomas

BIO 1030 Lecture 40 Notes  The body’s organization o Cell o Tissue  Group of similar cells performing a similar function o Organ  Contain different types of tissues each performing to aid in the overall action of the organ o Organ system o Organism  4 major tissue types o Epithelial tissue  Covers the body surfaces and lines body cavities o Connective tissue  Binds and supports body parts o Muscle tissue  Moves the body and its parts o Nervous tissue  receives stimuli and conducts nerve impulses  Epithelial tissue protects o Also called epithelium o Forms external and internal linings of many organs o Covers surface of body o Adhere to one another but are generally only one cell layer o Protective function  Substances have to physically pass through epithelial cells to enter body o Differentiated by shape  Squamous – flattened cells  Cuboidal - cube-shaped cells  Columnar – rectangular pillar or columns (allow the movement of material) o One or more epithelial cells are the primary components of glands (produce and secrete products)  Epidermis o Outer region of skin o Stratified (layered) o Cell reinforced with keratin for strength and waterproofing o Protection from injury, drying out, and pathogen  Epithelial tissue constantly replaces its cells o Useful in harsh environments like skin or digestive tract o Also more likely to become cancerous  Connective tissue connect and protects o All types involved in binding organs together and providing support and protects o Connective tissue cells widely separated by matrix – noncellular material that varies from solid to liquid o Matrix usually has fibers – notably collagen  Dense fibrous connective tissue o More collagen fibers packed closer together than loose fibrous connective tissue o More specific function – found in tendons (connects muscle to bone) and ligaments (connects bones to bones at joints)  Cartilage and Bone (connective tissue) o Cartilage – cells lie in lacunae separated by solid yet flexible matrix o Bone – most rigid connective tissue  Hard matrix of inorganic salts (calcium) deposited around collagen fibers  Rigidity with elasticity and strength  Most common type is compact bone  Blood o Composed of several types of cells suspended in liquid matrix (plasma) o Blood unlike other connective tissue in that matrix (plasma) is not made by cells o Transports nutrients and oxygen to cells o Removes waste o Helps distribute heat o Plays role in fluid, ion, and pH balance o Components help fight disease and clot blood o Red blood cells transport oxygen o White blood cells fight infection o Platelets, cell fragments, form a plug and release molecules to help clotting process  Muscular tissue moves the body o Works with nervous tissue to enable movement o Contains contractile proteins actin and myosin o 3 types of vertebrae muscles  Skeletal  Voluntary  Attached to skeleton  Striated, tubular form  Cardiac  Involuntary  Striated, branched fibers  Occurs in walls of heart  Smooth  Involuntary  Spindle-shaped, nostriated, uninucleated fibers  Occurs in walls of internal organs  Nervous tissue communicates o Coordinates body parts and allows animal to respond to external and internal
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