CSC 1100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Top-Down And Bottom-Up Design, Text Editor, Modular Programming

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Chapter 1:
An Overview of Computers and Programming Languages
Objectives
In this chapter, you will:
Learn about different types of computers
Explore the hardware and software components of a computer system
Learn about the language of a computer
Learn about the evolution of programming languages
Examine high-level programming languages
Objectives (cont’d.)
Discover what a compiler is and what it does
Examine a C++ program
Explore how a C++ program is processed
Learn what an algorithm is and explore problem-solving techniques
Become aware of structured design and object-oriented design programming
methodologies
Become aware of Standard C++, ANSI/ISO Standard C++, and C++11
Introduction
Without software, the computer is useless
Software is developed with programming languages
C++ is a programming language
C++ suited for a wide variety of programming tasks
A Brief Overview of the History of Computers
Early calculation devices
Abacus, Pascaline
Leibniz device
Jacquard’s weaving looms
Babbage machines: difference and analytic engines
Hollerith machine
A Brief Overview of the History of Computers (cont’d.)
Early computer-like machines
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Mark I
ENIAC
Von Neumann architecture
UNIVAC
Transistors and microprocessors
A Brief Overview of the History of Computers (cont’d.)
Categories of computers
Mainframe computers
Midsize computers
Micro computers (personal computers)
Elements of a Computer System
Hardware
CPU
Main memory
Secondary storage
Input/Output devices
Software
Hardware
CPU
Main memory: RAM
Input/output devices
Secondary storage
Central Processing Unit and Main Memory
Central processing unit
Brain of the computer
Most expensive piece of hardware
Carries out arithmetic and logical operations
Central Processing Unit and Main Memory (cont’d.)
Central Processing Unit and Main Memory (cont’d.)
Random access memory
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Directly connected to the CPU
All programs must be loaded into main memory before they can be executed
All data must be brought into main memory before it can be manipulated
When computer power is turned off, everything in main memory is lost
Central Processing Unit and Main Memory (cont’d.)
Main memory is an ordered sequence of memory cells
Each cell has a unique location in main memory, called the address of the cell
Each cell can contain either a programming instruction or data
Secondary Storage
Secondary storage: device that stores information permanently
Examples of secondary storage:
Hard disks
Flash drives
Floppy disks
Zip disks
CD-ROMs
Tapes
Input/Output Devices
Input devices feed data and programs into computers
Keyboard
Mouse
Secondary storage
Output devices display results
Monitor
Printer
Secondary storage
Software
Software: programs that do specific tasks
System programs control the computer
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