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Lecture 2

HIST 2301 Lecture 2: Texas History 2301 lecture set 5-10 notes

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Wharton County Junior College
HIST 2301

Texas Hist. Lecture Notes Set 5-10 Immigrants to Texas You should, at this point in readings, be seeing a pattern of names that has been coming forth more and more. James Long, a filibuster, and his wife came to Texas for the purchase of horses to sell to the soldiers over the boarder. The Baron de Bastrop, a friend of Moses Austin, had gained his land grant petition. Howeved not full fill his responsibilities, so his son, Stephen, takes on the responsibility of his father in bringing settlers into this land. There are others, but you have also read of the pure Spaniards, espanoles, that populated the land, the Native Americans and mestizos (the Native American's mixed breed of people), the Africans that were brought for slavery who intermingled with their owners to produce the mulattoes. These are the people that have been populating Texas. Add to these the people comg to the U.S., and there are quite a number of people inhabiting and add to the culture of Texas. This comes from the diverse people that helped to develop this state. The text shows the problems that there were in determining the type of new government for the people. Regardless of what was done, no one would be truly happy. We know of the unstable situation in Mexico w/the deposing of the Spanish govt. We learned that the rules and regulations were constantly changing for Austin and others seeking a land grant. Austin was the only one to receive such a petition. Requirements for Land improve land within two profess Catholicism pledge allegiance to rules of years Mexico There is a book published with the names of the Old 300 in it. It is interesting reading to find out about them and their dealing coming to, as well as in, this land. As you note from the text, you can see the land grants map. This is the forerunner to land grants, like • Zavala, • De Leon, • Milam, these were lands given to these people for establishment. • Wharton county is named for the Earl of Wharton, English, whom laid claim to the land before the Spanish. If you go to the Wharton Co. Museum in Wharton, you can see the maps that show where his land was-what he claimed-and what year he made his claim. The Republic of Fredonia incident sent alarm throughout the territory and on to the leader in Mexico. The government in Mexico was as unsteady as a child's toy boat in a pool of water during a hurricane. The Tejanos populated Texas greatly. They were, for the most part, the rule of Texas. The history of some of the cities of Texas demonstrated the changing rule of the government. Anahuac was built with the colonials (from the U.S.) wood that the Mexican General Bradburn, had taken from the colonials to build the fort. This was one of the final straws, along with the issue of slavery and protecting runaway slaves, for the colonials. William Travis and another were put into the fort prison where they would be sent to Mexico for trial. The two demanded a trial in Anahuac and had to petition the Mexican govt. for it. The Mexican leader finally looked over the situation and determined their release. These colonials knew that if they went to Mexico City, they'd never be heard from again-they'd be dead. This is one of the early incidents that lead to the growing movement for independence from Mexico. Anahuac was supposed to be excavated several years back, but that seems not to have really happened for people to tour the fort they had a tunnel going from the wine cellar to the arsenal. Claims to Texas Texas has been a disputed land for quite some time. The Native Americans claimed it. Then, the Spanish claimed the land and built missions on it. The French claimed Texas and built a fort (later trading posts) on it for their claim. Moses and Stephen F. Austin were allowed land grants for the further development of Texas. Because the place was so vast, the Spanish, and later Mexican, government agreed for the development through colonization. There is a book called, The Old 300, that lists the names of the families that came here under Austin, who was the empresario for the settlement. The Mexican decree of no more slavery was not a problem for most of these families. Texas was untamed land. President John Quincy Adams, in 1825, wanted Texas as a nice growth for the U.S. He offered $1 million dollars for the border to be moved to the Rio Grande. Fredonia was an alarm for Mexico. El Presidente, Anastacio Bustamante (any relation to the politician-Bustamante- of today) wanted to squelch the power of the people, showing them who is in charge. Anahuac was a problem, especially since the white settlers throw their support behind Santa Anna (whom will later turn on these settlers). This became similar to the American Revolution (one would think they would learn from history). The Law of April 6, 1830 was devastating to these settlers. Bradburn was ruling unmercifully. There was no representation in Mexico for them. They felt cheated and betrayed. The demands of the government fluctuated, depending upon who was in control. Santa Anna over throws Bustamante and becomes the leader of Mexico (and all of its' problems). Santa Anna rules with an iron fist. It does not take the colonists long to realize that the conditions are horrendous. They do not have the free control that they had in the past. Life is difficult, but not impossible; however, when one does not have anyone to listen, it does not seem fair. They wanted fair, they thought they had an ally in Santa Anna. Santa Anna is just trying to squelch the problems to keep his position in tact for himself. This led to the Conventions in 1832 and 1833. Empresarios The help that Stephen Austin received from the Baron von Bastrop was to survey the land for each family 4428 acres of land for ranching and 177 acres for farming. This survey let families know where their land was-exactly. The first town built by Anglos was named by the too, "San Felipe de Austin". By 1830, 4000 people lived there. There was a ferry to carry people and their possessions, a newspaper, a school for boys, houses and a religious institution. They were spreading out—as far West as the Colorado River where the city of Austin is today. Sterling Robertson and Green DeWitt brought others from the U.S., while Martin de Leon brought families from Mexico. Those coming from the U.S. brought their slaves and built cotton and rice plantations in Central, as well as East, Texas. Families started w/one room cabins. As things got better, they would add a room. Most meals were cornbread and bacon cooked indoors in the fireplace, or outdoors over the fire. Female clothing often caught fire, killing the woman in the process. Wild game was a treat consisting of small animals, deer, wild turkey and anything that they could catch. Gail Borden came to San Felipe in 1830, stated the "Telegraph and Texas Register"; the first successful newspaper in the colony. He was a surveyor and inventor. He discovered now to make canned mild and dried foods that would not spoil, only after a child he know died from drinking spoilt milk. It took people time to catch on to his inventions. Naturalists from Europe came to Texas to study the flora and fawna: Naturalists' Studies plants birds animals insects shells rocks Louis Berlandier, a Frenchman, came to Texas in 1828 to send drawings and samples of plants and animals back to Europe for scientists to study. The info went into museums and books. William Goyens, a son of a freed slave who came to Nacogdoches, worked as a blacksmith to earn money. He spoke several Native American languages. He became known as a leader in the community. Mexican rulers were afraid of the rapid growth of Anglos in Texas. Would they take it over? (They did). Austin went to Mexico to gain better laws and was arrested. After too much time passed, Austin is released. Move towards Revolution For 320 years, Spain controlled Texas. Mexico ruled it for 15 years. Then, in a very short period of time in early 1836, the Texians (as they called themselves) had determined their freedom from Mexico at Washington on the Brazos, fought against Santa Anna and, ultimately, defeated the Mexican general at the Battle of San Jacinto, which was a battle that some say lasted about 18 minutes. There are stories that Santa Anna was dressed as a woman trying to escape. He, like Sam Houston, was a Mason. Houston let Santa Anna go without residual effects to Santa Anna because both men were Masons (this was supposed to be a linking bond between them that would cause no need for formality more than their word). Think about it, within about an eight week period from Goliad, the Alamo to San Jacinto, Texas was a free Republic. It is the only state in the contiguous Union to have been its' own country. Sam Houston, leader of the Texian army against Santa Anna, was elected President. He asked Stephen F. Austin (who must have been horrified at the dealings of Mexico towards the Anglos and the Anglo response- moving now to freedom) and Anglos to Texas Mirabeau Lamar George Henry Smith Childress J. Pinckney Thomas Rusk others too Henderson to help him govern the new Republic by the Constitution which had been written to guide these people into making a strong government. Columbia was the first capital. There was a decision to move the capital to Har
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