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Lecture 1

HIST 2301 Lecture 1: Texas History 2301 lecture set 1-4 notes
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History
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HIST 2301
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Graham

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Unit 1 Lecture Notes Ch. 1-4 Landmasses Texas is the second largest landmass, to Alaska. It is so big that some of the smaller states in the Union could fit inside of it. It is 801 miles from North to South by 773 miles east to West. Because of this, it is so important to discuss the landform regions of Texas and how they impact such a sizable state. There are four major landform regions in Texas. Landforms are the formations on the earth's surface, i.e. mountains, plains, valleys and plateaus. The regions are land areas that are alike. So, when discussion "landform regions", we are talking about large areas of the land with surfaces that are alike. These landform regions of Texas are a part of the larger regions that go through the U.S. from Canada into Mexico. These would include Coastal Plains, Central Plains, the High Plains, and Plateaus with Mountains and Basins. Texas has these landforms. The Coastal Plains, a plain is defined as "...a large area of land that is mostly flat or gently rolling..." are broad stretching along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Today, this area is important for industry the import and export of goods do to the port. • shrimp • fishing • oils (Houston wants to expand its' port for more industry. The other side of this is that, in this day and age of being security minded, there will be much more security, with money needed for this security, increasing for the Port of Houston. At one time, a person or group could go on boat tours of the Port; that's history now.) These Texas ports are VERY important to people in the U.S., whether it is realized or not. Having said that, it was a couple of years ago now that the California port workers went on strike. (Every state in the U.S. requires workers to be members of a Workers' Union, except Texas. This means that you have to pay dues to the union for them to represent you. It's not a choice for this in any other state. One man in Mass. State joined the military because the cost of Union dues was so great that his construction work job dues was a sizable portion of his pay check; thus, making him not able to meet specific bills. We're in Texas; we don't have to pay this now. ) The point, Calif. Port workers would not accept the shipments of toys from TX. Ports for the up coming Christmas holidays. There were specific toys on back order for the holiday-not happening for THAT Christmas. Children were disappointed and parents were angry. Workers weren't getting paid because they didn't have the materials to move; yet, the workers were on strike. They aren't to break the strike barrier. It's illegal. Influences There are a lot of land form features that influenced Texas and its' native people. You looked up the Balcones Escarpment, but there is also the Caprock Excarpment and the Davis Mountains that factor in to the picture too. Some of the major Native American tribes in Texas were Kiowas, Comanche, Wichitas, Jumanos (near the present boarder with Mexico as is this next one too), the Coahuiltecans, the Apaches, Tonkawas, Atakapans, the Caddoes, and Karankawa. The Atakapans and Caddoes were of East Texas. They seemed to be agrarian. The Caddoes built large mounds that archaeologists are still trying to determine what the use was. Was it burial grounds? Was it for determination of the seasons? It's kind of similar to Stonehenge in England. What was the use? Religious rituals? There were many more Native Americans on this land too. The Waco tribe, the Haskell tribe and so many more all influenced their surrounds, the way of life and interaction (or not) with others. Other factors important to the survival of these people were waterways. The more major rivers for Texas include: the Red River that today helps to divide the boundary for Texas and Oklahoma (In the 1930's or '40's there was almost a war between these two states because the river changes directions effecting a small town that would change states at the change of the river because the town was on the boarder for the two states. Both states called up their military troops to maintain the boarder. It took the Pres. of the U.S. to keep the troops from killing each other over the change of a river.), the Sabine (East Texas boarder from La.), the Neches River, the Trinity River (for the Christian Trinity of God, Jesus and the Holy Spirit), the Brazos (which means the "Arms of God"), the Colorado (meaning reddish), an off shoot from this is the Pedernales River, the Guadalupe and its' off shoot-the San Antonio River where the city is, the Nueces (meaning nuts), the Pecos, and the Rio Grande (Great or Large) River. There is Galveston Bay where the Karankawa would hang out in the summer in their "summer homes" because it was cooler. They could fish there and live relatively comfortably. The San Antonio Bay, Laguna Madre (Mother Lagoon), Padre Island (which is named for Padre Ball, who asked the Spanish govt. for a land grant for his mission there. It was called Padre Ball's island, shortened to Padre Island. Then,there's Mustang Island-that speaks for its' self, I think. Where there was water, there the people needed to be-understandably. There are water resources important today, as in the past: Ogallala Formation, Alurium Deposits, Edwards Limestone, Trinity Sands Group, Balcones Fault Zone, and the Gulf Coast Sands. These different places that these people lived were noted for the things in the region. East Texas is the Piney Woods because of the pine trees there. There is a Post Oak Belt, Blackland Prairie, the Gulf Coast Plain, South Texas Plain, the Cross Timbers-consisting of more than one part, the Grand Prairie, the Lower Plains, High Plains, Edwards Plateau, Llano Basin, and Mountains and Basins. These are the geographic sections of Texas. Nacogdoches, of East Texas, claims to be the oldest city in Texas founded in 1779 (three years after the U.S. independence from Britain). El Paso is founded in 1682. Yet, Coronado explores the Texas Panhandle in 1542. Let's put this into some prospective. Columbus was 1492 to Hispanola. Balboa, in 1513, is the first European to see the Pacific Ocean and names it thus, meaning "Peaceful." De Leon searches for the "Fountain of Youth" and finds Florida in 1513. Cortes defeats the Aztecs and takes Mexico in 1519-1522. Pineda maps the Gulf Coast of Texas in 1519. Narvaez, in 1528 explores the Texas Coast. De Vaca explores the interior of Texas and comes across the Karankawa and Coahioltecan Natives, as well as buffalo in 1528-1536. Fray Marcos and Esteban are seeking the "Seven Cities of Cibola" (or Seven Cities of Gold) of the Texas southwest plains. These turn out to be the reflection of the sun off the adobe. Think about it, Amarillo is Spanish for yellow. If the sun hit just right on the dirt buildings of the Pueblo people, could it not have looked like everything is "gold"? Pizarro conquered the Inca (of Peru) in 1533. In 1542, Coronado, also seeking the Cities of Cibola for his fame and fortune, explores present day - New Mexico, Texas Panhandle, and north to Kansas. These are early influences on Texas. Native Americans Native American Tribes of Texas Kiowa Tribe These hunters learned to ride horses and domesticate dogs for their use, which they used to help carry their teepee homes because they were wanderers, going where the food sources go. They used bows and arrows for hunting. They inner-married with the Apaches, befriend the Flatheads (near the Montana area) and the Crow tribes. The Crows taught them to ride horses, which they used for hunting on the great plains. Hugh Corwin (TSHA) Wichita Confederacy This confederacy was comprised of a series of different tribes with commonalities in their traditions and culture. Many lived in what is Oklahoma today. French traders (particularly Jean Baptiste Bernard de la Harpe) identified them as Ousitas, "raccoon eyes" because of the tattoos around their eyes. They were dependent on agriculture and hunting for survival. They lived in domed shaped grass abodes where they cultivated corn and tobacco (both are sacred to these people), as well as melons. They held annual hunts saving their goods buried in the ground near streams. The men wore elaborate tattoos with the women going nude from the waist up. They have an extensive mythology but very little religion in explaining the natural forces around them. These warriors were friendly and avoided confrontation, unless provoked. By Robert Bell, Edward B. Jelks, and W. W. Newcomb (TSHA) Comanche These excellent horsemen roamed the Great Plains area, originally a part of the northern Shoshone tribe, who roamed the Great Basin area of the western United States with their language being "a part of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic family". The horse changed the way these people lived. This is when they moved to the Great Plains. The move South facilitated a warmer climate, abundant food in the buffalo, trade with the French and the Wichitas (where they got firearms). Other tribes, like the Blackfoot and Crow, were better armed and rivals to the Comanche. (The literal translation of their name, from the Ute, is "anyone who wants to fight with me all the time.") They have never been a confederation. They have been as many as 13 different bands. They extended from the Edwards Plateau to Central Texas, from the Cross Timbers area to the mountains of Mexico. Western Oklahoma was part of their territory too! They roamed the Llano Estacado. They had a strong political connection within their government. They had a political counsel, as we as recognizing individual freedom. Texas Historical Commission Caddo Native Americans The Caddo are, like other tribes, includes the group, Hasinai in the woodlands. In these mounds, two temple mounds were found, a burial mound, as well as part of the village have been unearthed. Though they utilized these mounds in their daily lives, there is not as much known about the use of these mounds. They had a sophisticated political/ceremonial system. They traded with other groups in North Texas through northern, Louisiana, western Arkansas, and eastern Oklahoma, as well as far away like Illinois, and Florida. They were hunters, but their lives were more connected to the land that they cultivated. They domesticated dogs and tended to live near water sources. They were not nomadic, like other tribal groupings. They were a more peaceable people. Texas Historical Commission Apache From Arkansas, across Texas through Arizona, the Apache have comprised the Lipan and the Mescaleros with the meaning from the Zuni, being "enemy". Apache called themselves, "Inde or Dine", meaning "the people." As the Spaniards and the people of Mexico later influenced the Tejas area in the 1800's, a lot of the Apache inner marry those of Hispanic heritage as a means of survival because there was an attempt to totally annihilate the Apache people by "killing them off". They were among the first to learn to ride horses. They used dogs as pack animals. The buffalo was very important for these people, as they use it for food, clothing, shelter, and comfort. When they, later, tried to cultivate a less nomadic way of life, their enemies, the Comanche knew when to attach in order to devastate the Apache. Texas Historical Commission Jumano This is
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