Class Notes (838,114)
United States (325,303)
History (4)
HIST 2301 (4)
Graham (4)
Lecture 4

HIST 2301 Lecture 4: Texas History 2301 lecture set 16-20
Premium

14 Pages
75 Views
Unlock Document

Department
History
Course
HIST 2301
Professor
Graham
Semester
Spring

Description
Texas History Lecture Notes, Chpts. 16-20 Texas and the Great Depression, 1929-1941 The economic crisis of the 1930s revealed serious weaknesses in the U.S. economy. Herbert Hoover was hampered by the concept of limited power in economic matters so it was up to local governments and charities to provide temporary relief. Texas was not immune to the rock-bottom market agricultural prices, unequally distributed resources, and struggling railroad, textile, and coal industries impacting the nation. The Great Depression impacted regions and states in distinct ways. All Texas cities instituted austerity programs, fired married women, cut teachers' salaries, reduced appropriations for public education, eliminated some urban services, and froze employee salaries. Some cities took even stronger measures. To conserve resources for deserving whites, Houston refused to provide relief to Blacks and Mexicans. By 1932, most Texas civic leaders warned that they could not continue relief efforts. In the midst of the economic downturn, Texas found itself in a unique situation. The East Texas oil boom occurred in the early years of the Great Depression, offering some relief to the poorest part of the state through an explosion of jobs and a sudden increase in land prices. The Railroad Commission, authorized to establish maximum amounts of oil that could be pumped, did not act fast enough to prevent major oil companies from controlling the refineries in the state. As a result, the price of oil dropped considerably. Nonetheless, a handful of Texas oilmen amassed enormous fortunes during this time. State Politics, 1929-1933 Sterling's two terms as governor were marked by hostility over the "hot oil" issue and heightened economic distress that significantly impacted small and marginal farmers in North and East Texas. Sterling called a special legislative session in September of 1931. Huey P. Long's "drop a crop" plan, proposed at an earlier governors' conference, was rejected as having too significant an impact on Texas' extensive production. The legislature did, however, limit cotton acreage in 1932 to 30 percent of that cultivated in 1931. Only three other southern states passed similar acts. Both state and federal governments attempted to control the marketing of cotton in order to keep it off of the market until prices stabilized, but national and state opposition surfaced, which negatively impacted:impacted Great Depression and Texas ginners producers manufacturers Miriam "Ma" Ferguson challenged Sterling for the Democratic nomination in 1932. Although Sterling asserted that fraudulent election returns had ensured Ferguson's nomination, she easily defeated the Republican nominee in the general election based on strong support in East Texas. Her second administration coincided with Franklin D. Roosevelt's first two years as president. Ferguson endorsed early New Deal legislation, including federal control of the price of oil. Texas and the Great Depression, 1929-1941 The economic crisis of the 1930s revealed serious weaknesses in the U.S. economy. Herbert Hoover was hampered by the concept of limited power in economic matters so it was up to local governments and charities to provide temporary relief. Texas was not immune to the rock-bottom market agricultural prices, unequally distributed resources, and struggling railroad, textile, and coal industries impacting the nation. Texans Confront the Depression, 1929-1935 The Great Depression impacted regions and states in distinct ways. All Texas cities instituted austerity programs, fired married women, cut teachers' salaries, reduced appropriations for public education, eliminated some urban services, and froze employee salaries. Some cities took even stronger measures. To conserve resources for deserving whites, Houston refused to provide relief to blacks and Mexicans. By 1932, most Texas civic leaders warned that they could not continue relief efforts. Once jobs grew scarce, white men came first. The inadequacies of local resources were revealed in dwindling tax revenues, falling property values, decreases in the prices of cotton or oil, and the large increase in the number of unemployed. Ross Sterling, a business progressive with substantial personal wealth, easily defeated Miriam "Ma" Ferguson in a run-off election. Despite four special sessions called by Sterling, the 1931 legislature failed to act. The New Deal and Texas Texans held significant positions in Roosevelt's administration, as they had in Woodrow Wilson's. Franklin Roosevelt won the southern vote with a Texan as his running mate ― John Nance Garner, former Speaker of the House of Representatives. Texans and the New Deal John N. Garner Speaker of the House of FDR's Vice Pres. Rep's Jesse H. Jones Reconstruction Finance Corporation Maury Maverick Wartime Mobiliation Agency Wright Patman Progressive Reformer Lyndon B. Johnson National Youth Administraion Martin Dies House Un-American Activities Committee The National Recovery Administration price codes affected Texas primarily as they applied to "Hot Oil" production. More important to Texans were the minimum wage standards and the guaranteed right to collective bargaining. Even though labor unionization never gained great strength in the state, the Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO) organized among the Gulf Coast refineries and defense industries in spite of the anti-union bias. The modern Texas infrastructure began with the Public Works Administration (PWA), but thousands more found employment in the Works Progress Administration (WPA). FDR's favorite New Deal program, the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), provided full-time jobs in reforestation, flood and erosion control, building of public structures, and sewage and water treatment systems. A youthful Lyndon Baines Johnson headed the National Youth Administration (NYA) which provided part-time jobs to needy high school, undergraduate, and graduate students. The majority of NYA jobs went to white males, but many Hispanic Texans were hired and substantially fewer African Americans. Social, Cultural, and Recreational Activities Black Texans celebrated Juneteenth as well as other state and national holidays. Blacks held their own county fairs and rodeos, parades, picnics, barbecues, and baseball games. In 1920 Andrew "Rube" Foster organized the National Negro Baseball League. The best-known black sports hero, Jack Johnson, held the heavy-weight boxing crown from 1908 to 1915. Films of his fights, however, were banned by the state legislature, arguing that they might inspire rioting. Blacks also contributed substantially to American music. Some made their names in journalism. Black newspapers flourished for a while in Amarillo, Austin, Beaumont, Calvert, Denison, Fort Worth, Port Arthur, San Antonio, San Angelo, and Waco. Overall, however, substantial progress in African American's quest for first-class citizenship was slow due to restricted political participation and little, if any, social or economic influence in a segregated society. Although Mexican Americans maintained their traditional culture, some aspects of their social, cultural, and recreational lives reflected biculturation. Holidays included several religious holy days, fiestas patrias (Cinco de Mayo and Diez y Seis de septiembre), while at the same time celebrating George Washington's birthday and the Fourth of July. Hispanics, too, contributed significantly to the Texas music scene with the sounds of an accordion-based ensemble, the conjunto and the singing of corridos, ballads that celebrate the mythical legends of Catarino Garza and Gregorio Cortez. Names of early Texas Mexican writers, including Sara Estela Ramirez and Jovita Gonzalez, are much more recognizable today than during the 1920s. State Politics, 1935-1938 The Great Depression dominated state politics in 1935 gubernatorial race in Texas. James V. Allred, firmly identified with the Roosevelt administration, established the Texas Planning Board to guide the legislature in coordinating state efforts with New Deal relief funds. His major accomplishment was the reorganization of the Texas Rangers and the Highway Department into the Department of Public Safety. Allred's second term was hindered by ever-increasing financial burdens. He called several special sessions of the legislature but no agreement was reached on the issue of taxes, aid to the elderly, or prohibition. Effects of the Great Depression James V. Alfred Gov. Texas Planning Board reorganization of the Texas Rangers no agreement increasing financial burdens Highway Department into the Department of caused by govt. growth issue of taxes Public Safety no agreement about no agreement for increasing power of the federal government aid to the elderly prohibition implement Wagner Act New Deal programs imposed undermining of traditional American values of barring unfair labor practices racial and ethnic inequities self-help and individual responsibility Mexican Americans remained affiliated with the Democratic party, and Blacks executed an almost complete transfer of allegiance from Lincoln's party to FDR's. The End of the New Deal in Texas Confusion reigned during the gubernatorial campaign of 1938. Thirteen candidates sought the seat, but W. Lee "Pappy" O'Daniel, known around the state for his radio show featuring O'Daniel and the Light Crust Doughboys, a hillbilly band, won the race. EvO'Daniel's platform included abolition of the poll tax, opposition to capital punishment, state assistance for all elderly persons, and a promise of no sales taxes. Once in office his accomplishments were minimal; the legislature did not address the long-term problem of sorely needed new sources of state revenue but eventually compromised on the Morris Omnibus Tax Bill, which increased taxes on the gross receipts of some businesses as well as on oil and gas and tobacco. O'Daniel's anti-union stance coincided with an upsurge in conservativism. Promising to introduce antistrike legislation once elected to Congress, O'Daniel ran for the congressional seat, opposing in this race the young and dedicated New Dealer, Lyndon B. Johnson. Johnson believed that his defeat by a little more than 1,000 votes in this election was the result of illicit returns. O'Daniel served one regular Senate term, during which he managed to have a worse record than that as governor. Nevertheless, he was a popular figure, carefully cultivating an antiestablishment, country-bumpkin image and using his camp-meeting campaigns to reinforce voters' perceptions of him as a good, honest, and down-to-earth man representing those who had no voice in state politics. He also capitalized on the conservative discontent with organized labor and the New Deal, symbolizing the end of the New Deal in Texas. Literature and the Arts Prior to World War II Outstaning Individuals of the Depression Herbert E. Bolton Eugene C. Barker Charles W. Ramsdell George Pierce Garrison Walter Prescott Webb William Sidney Porter (O. Henry) J. Frank Dobie Dorothy Scarborough Katherine Anne Porter Elisabet Ney Henry A. McArdle the Onderdonks — Robert and his son Julian At this time Texas music — blues, corridos, Cajun, western or country — still reflected its rural and provincial culture but was rapidly responding to the developing urban environment. War, Prosperity, and Modernization, 1941-1960 The feeling of security provided by an ocean on both sides of nation was breached on December 7, 1941, when the Japanese launched a surprise attack on the U.S. Pacific Fleet anchored at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. World War II would do what the New Deal had been unable to do—decisively end the Great Depression. As a result, Texas entered the postwar industrial economy and modernity. Texas and World War II Postwar Politics The 1940s were characterized by political tumult. Tensions increased over charges of communist- infiltrated labor unions and the demands of African Americans and Mexican Americans for their civil rights. The Smith v. Allright decision and the Sweatt v. Painter case that resulted in the court-ordered integration of the University of Texas law school also heightened tensions, impacting the gubernatorial race. Beauford Jester emerged victorious with his platform of no new taxes, no federal interference with state laws, and firm opposition to labor unions. The "Establishment's" candidate was not able to accomplish much due to the legislature's obstinacy in coping with the Sweatt decision, ignoring problems that festered during the depression and war years. Tideland petroleum discoveries made after World War II became the focus of controversy. When Truman vetoed Texas' claim to the offshore tidelands, the state took its case to the U.S. Supreme Court. Ultimately, Shivers announced his support of the Republican Eisenhower, who promised to sign a quitclaim bill, while the Johnson/Rayburn forces endorsed Democrat Adlai Stevenson. Eisenhower carried the state, and Shivers defeated challenger Ralph Yarborough, a liberal Austin lawyer. Into the 1960s under Price Daniel Distrust between the liberal and moderate wings of the Democratic Party continued into the 1960s. Known liberals joined with the AFL-CIO to create the Democrats of Texas (DOT), with the purpose of abolishing the poll tax, broadening liberal influence in the state party, and endorsing national Democratic Party goals. DOT endorsed Ralph Yarborough in the special election called to fill Daniel's unexpired Senate term. Yarborough won a full senatorial term in 1958, but DOT and Yarborough lost control of the party machinery in 1956, when the Johnson, Rayburn, and Daniel forces took hold of the State Democratic Executive Committee and refused to seat liberal delegations to the convention. Meanwhile, Governor Daniel's most vexing problem was taxation. Opposing the general sales tax, he preferred to impose taxes on tobacco and alcohol, with a large share of taxes imposed on businesses. By 1970, 62 percent of the state's revenue came from the sales tax. The state now had a predictable annual revenue income. The first laws in over a quarter of a century to look into legislative misconduct were also passed. Most important, Texas began to depart from its southern racial customs. Texas Industrialization Urban migration also defined the state's economic life, exacerbating social tensions. School integration, mandated by the courts in the 1950s and 1960s, hastened urban "white flight," from cities to suburbs. Per capita income rose across the South, particularly in Texas, to a
More Less

Related notes for HIST 2301

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit