AHS 1011 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Seesaw, Negative Feedback, Blood Sugar

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Published on 31 Aug 2016
Introduction to the Human Body
The definition of anatomy is structure. Anatomy deals with shape and size.
The definition of physiology is function. Physiology deals with how organs
Organization of the human body:
1. Atom- a particle that makes up all mater in the universe and cannot be
broken down into a simpler substance.
2. Molecule- combined of two or more particles and builds proteins for the
3. Organelle/cell- the basic unit of life.
4. Tissue- a group of cells working together to perform a function. 4 types:
epithelium, muscle, connective and nervous.
5. Organ- a group of tissues that work together to perform a function.
6. Organ/human system- all structures working together to build the whole
Homeostasis: staying the same within a range and bringing the body back to
what is normal (think of a teeter totter and how the middle balances out).
There are two positive feedbacks: positive and negative. With positive
feedback, changes will result in the same direction as the initial change. The
only two examples are blood clotting and childbirth. Negative feedback
makes the output shut off the original effect of the stimulus or at least reduce
the intensity. An example would be controlling blood sugar by insulin.
The anatomical position is standing erect, face forward, arms at the side
and toes and palms directed forward.
Directional terms:
oSuperior- above; towards the head
oInferior- below the head
oAnterior/ventral- towards the front of the body
oPosterior/dorsal- towards the back of the body
oMedial- towards the midline of the body
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