BIOL 1406 Lecture 5: BIology notes ch. 5

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8 Feb 2017
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Chapter 5: Macromolecules
Overview: The Molecules of Life
Living things are made up of four classes of macromolecules:
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
Macromolecules are large molecules composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms
Most macromolecules are polymers
Brick wall example
Concept 5.1: Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers
A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many building blocks
Monomers
Three of the four classes of life’s organic molecules are polymers:
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Nucleic acids
The Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers
Monomers are bonded together via a condensation reaction or dehydration reaction
Water is lost
Enzymes are often used to speed up this process
Polymers are disassembled into monomers by hydrolysis, a reaction that is essentially the
reverse of the dehydration reaction
Concept 5.2: Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material
Carbohydrates
sugars and the polymers of sugars
The simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides, or single sugars
Polysaccharides
Complex carbohydrates with specific roles
Sugars
Monosaccharides have molecular formulas that are usually multiples of CH2O
Glucose (C6H12O6)
Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrate “simple sugars”
Monosaccharides serve as
major fuel for cells
raw material for building molecules
A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides
Polysaccharides
Polysaccharides
storage and structure
Starch, a storage polysaccharide of plants, consists entirely of glucose monomers
Plants store surplus starch as granules within chloroplasts and other plastids
Glycogen is a storage polysaccharide in animals
Glycogen is stored in liver and muscle cells
Structural Polysaccharides
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