Alteration in skeletal muscles: muscle tone is lost and circulation is slowed, muscle atrophy occurs, major complication is a flexion contracture where muscles shorten, joints stiffen, alterations in function and deformities occur. Hypovolemia may result: calcium levels increase in the bloodstream (hypercalcemia), diminished circulation and postural (orthostatic) hypotention is a complication with compromised circulation to vital organs. Lodges in lung: elastic stockings (ted hose) are used to speed venous bloodflow and prevent venous clot formation. Alteration in oxygen and carbon dioxide: turning patient every 1-2 hours helps loosen lung secretions, hypostatic pneumonia if secretions stay in the lungs. Alterations in gastrointestinal tract: decreased appetite and constipation are concerns. If flat or reclining, urine remains in kidneys until they fill and spill over into ureters and bladder. Alterations in skin: moisture leads to infectious organisms, keep patients clean and dry!!! Important for infection control: pressure not just on soles of feet when immobile (bony prominences, tissue damage and pressure ulcers occur.