HLT 3400 Lecture 10: Exam 4 Pharm Study Guide

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HLT 3400
Diana Stanforth

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HLT 3400 Study Guide for Exam 4: Chapters 4057 Protozoal 1. What is the most significant protozoal disease in concerns to morbidity and mortality? Malaria 2. What causes malaria? Plasmodium protozoa carried by some mosquitoes. 3. What are the phases of malarial parasite? Sporozoites multiply in the liver into merozoites. Erythocytic stage after incubation; merozoites enter RBCs and multiply. RBCs rupture, releasing merozoites cold stage, hot stage, sweating stage. 4. What cycle are medications effective on? Drugs interrupt the erythrocytic stage to eliminate merozoites from RBCs and stop acute symptoms. 5. Which medication works on the phases cycle? Chloroquine (Aralen) or alternatives in conjunction with antibiotics to prevent systemic effects. o Serious adverse effects: CNS, cardiovascular toxicity; cirrhosis of liver, alcohol abuse, severe hepatic failure. o Also for treatment of rheumatic and inflammatory disorders. o Drug Ixns: antacids, laxatives containing aluminum Mg must not ne given within 4 hrs. Start primaquine therapy near conclusion of chloroquine. Antiinflammatory effects. 6. What are the classic malaria symptoms? Cold stage, hot stage, sweating stage. 7. When do we initiate treatment of malaria? Begin immediately. 8. What other type of medication can we give in addition to an antimalarial? Antibiotics to prevent systemic effects. 9. Understand primaquine, hydroxychloroquine (which pts cannot take primaquine but can take hydoxychloroquine?) Primaquine prevents relapse, used to treat PCP in combo with clindamycin. Hydroxychloroquine prevention and treatment of malaria; retinal toxicity is a concern. 10. When do we give a prophylaxis for malaria and how long do patients need to take it? For chloroquine: started 12 weeks prior to travel, taken weekly, taken for 4 weeks after travel also. Other drugs: taken 12 days prior to travel, taken daily, taken up to 7 days after trip; or weekly like chloroquine. Antihelmitics 11. When do we administer an antihelmitic? When the infestation is severe or if complications occur. Resistance is not a clinical problem with antihelminthics. 1
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