PSY 1010 Notes 9/6/13
Science must combine logic with research and experimentation.
- Is psychology all about common sense?
- How predictable is human behavior
o MILGRAM STUDY (they would give people the option to shock the client,
and they recorded who actually did that or not. No real clients.)
- Must also include common sense and observation, while also recognizing the inherent
limitations of both.
Limits of Observation: - the senses can be easily fooled (illusionist, magician).
- Generalization (inductive logic) using past experiences to assume that
something will be true.
- Experience biases our observation and also limits how we perceive our
Science: is as much a way of thinking, even an attitude, as it is a process.
- Critical thinking: the cognitive skills required to generate, test, revise theories (the
way of viewing the world that provides some sort of answer).
- Attitudes related to science:
o Question Authority (avoids being taken advantage of)
o Open Skepticism (okay with other options, humility)
o Intellectual Honesty
The Nature of Science and Thomas Kuhn: summary: science is public and social, everyone
needs to play by the same roles, research needs to be reviewed and analyzed, scientists are
responsible to society (ethics) especially since it is usually funded by the public (government
Science is not BIASED:
- Hindsight bias (I knew it all along): believing, after discovering an outcome, that it
was already forseen. “Life is lived forwards, but understood backwards.” Soren
- Overconfidence Bias: tendency to know more than someone actually knows.
- Philip Tetlock: asks political experts to make predictions, and