PSY 1010 Notes 9.11.13
Data & Statistics
- Normal Distribution: symmetrical “bell curve” in which scores are generally around
the middle. That’s because usually people are in the middle of the sample, and there
are always a few extremes. Ex: if the stats are about IQ, sometimes there are people
with really high IQ, really low IQ, but usually an IQ that’s right in the middle.
- Inferential Statistics: analyze data to test a hypothesis, helps to make predictions and
inferences. Testing allows for the researcher to compare two means, and help to
determine the accuracy of the findings rather than the rare “chances” something may
Consciousness: aware-ness of surroundings, and what’s going on in someone’s mind. Being
awake vs. being aware.
- William James: our awareness is just the “meandering of our mind,” in a sense.
There’s also the direction of consciousness, when we direct our thoughts in a
particular direction to solve a problem, etc. He wanted to focus on studying the whole
package of psychology rather than just studying an aspect of it, he was a huge critic
of psychology that has helped to shape it to what it is today.
- Daydreaming: the “meandering” of our minds rather than keeping our minds focused
in a particular direction.
o May be quite adaptive, and useful. Ex: helps remind us of other things that
need to be done. It helps to keep our nerves calm by thinking through
everything to make sure everything was done appropriates, ex: did I lock the
door? Did I turn the coffee pot off?
o May be negative, too. It can cause anxiety, overthinking, etc. It can cause
unrealistic and unachievable hopes.
o Some researchers believe that daydreaming can cause tension.
- Freud: believes that 80% of our minds and thoughts are out of our conscious
awareness. Uses the analogy of an iceber