PSY1010 NOTES 9.9.13
Surveys and interviews
o Pros: cheap, quick, easy, you can make predictions.
o Cons: there can be bias, herd effects, and there’s very little control.
Wording Effects: the way words of the same meaning can be phrased to impart different
emotions. ex) forbidden vs. recommended; revenue enhancers vs. tax increases; aid for
the needy vs. welfare, which of all these combinations sounds better to you?
Correlational Studies: cannot be the same as causation.
o Correlation coefficient: numerical representation of the relationship between two
o Range will always be from -1.00 to +1.00, with +1.00 being totally correct with a
perfect direct relationship, and vise versa.
"Science Aid: Representing Data Using Tables Graphs and Averages." Science Aid: Representing Data Using Tables Graphs and Averages. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2013. .
Limits to Correlation
o Helps scientists with predictions and explaining things.
o Correlations cannot prove anything, or why cause and affect relationships occur.
o Illusory Correlations: a relationship between 2 variables that you think exists,
but does not actually exist.
o Random assignment: all the participants in a study have an equal chance of
being in a control or experimental group.
o Representative Sample: the sample used for a study appropriately represents the
demographics of the population it’s taken from.
o Experimental Group: the group of participants that will be used to measure a
tested variable, they’ll receive the treatment.
o Control Group: a group that will not be tested, they will be used to compare the
results of the experimental group because they didn’t have a changing variable
like they did. Quasi-Experimental Design: similar to experimental design, but it puts an emphasis on
using natural groups rather than controlled and assigned groups.
o Placebo: something that appears to be the treatment, but isn’t actually a treatment.
i.e. a sugar pill, which can sometimes be used to trick someone into feeling better,
because they think that by taking medicine they’re feeling better, even though
there’s only just sugar