PSY1010 NOTES 9.9.13 FINISHED.docx

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PSY 1010
Professor Shively

PSY1010 NOTES 9.9.13  Surveys and interviews o Pros: cheap, quick, easy, you can make predictions. o Cons: there can be bias, herd effects, and there’s very little control.  Wording Effects: the way words of the same meaning can be phrased to impart different emotions. ex) forbidden vs. recommended; revenue enhancers vs. tax increases; aid for the needy vs. welfare, which of all these combinations sounds better to you?  Correlational Studies: cannot be the same as causation. o Correlation coefficient: numerical representation of the relationship between two variables. o Range will always be from -1.00 to +1.00, with +1.00 being totally correct with a perfect direct relationship, and vise versa. "Science Aid: Representing Data Using Tables Graphs and Averages." Science Aid: Representing Data Using Tables Graphs and Averages. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2013. .  Limits to Correlation o Helps scientists with predictions and explaining things. o Correlations cannot prove anything, or why cause and affect relationships occur. o Illusory Correlations: a relationship between 2 variables that you think exists, but does not actually exist.  Experimental Studies o Random assignment: all the participants in a study have an equal chance of being in a control or experimental group. o Representative Sample: the sample used for a study appropriately represents the demographics of the population it’s taken from. o Experimental Group: the group of participants that will be used to measure a tested variable, they’ll receive the treatment. o Control Group: a group that will not be tested, they will be used to compare the results of the experimental group because they didn’t have a changing variable like they did.  Quasi-Experimental Design: similar to experimental design, but it puts an emphasis on using natural groups rather than controlled and assigned groups.  Experimental Studies: o Placebo: something that appears to be the treatment, but isn’t actually a treatment. i.e. a sugar pill, which can sometimes be used to trick someone into feeling better, because they think that by taking medicine they’re feeling better, even though there’s only just sugar
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