Chem 402 Lecture 32: L32 4:12:17

4 Pages

University College - Chemistry
Course Code
University College - Chemistry Chem 402
Barnes Alexander

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12 April 2017 L32: Non-Ideal Mixtures I. Equilibria and Non-Ideal Mixtures A. Ideal Solutions 1. Solutions that obey Raoult’s law are called ideal solutions a. At coexistence:  𝐴,𝑇,𝑝 =  𝑔,𝑇𝐴𝑝 𝐴 ) b. Assuming an ideal gas:  𝑔,𝑇,𝑝 ) =  𝑔,𝑇 + 𝑅𝑇𝑙𝑛( ) 𝑝𝐴 𝐴 𝐴 𝐴 𝑝° β€’ Note: Β° assumes this is a pure state 𝑝𝐴 c. Thus,  𝐴,𝑇,𝑝 =  𝑔,𝑇𝐴+ 𝑅𝑇𝑙𝑛( ) 𝑝° βˆ— βˆ— d. Add an identity:  𝑔,𝑇,𝑝 ) =  π’ˆ,𝑻 + 𝑅𝑇𝑙𝑛( ) + 𝑹𝑻𝒍𝒏( ) βˆ’ 𝑅𝑇𝑙𝑛( ) 𝑝𝐴 𝐴 𝐴 𝑨 𝑝° 𝒑° 𝑝° β€’ The bolded parts =  𝑙,𝑇,𝑝 ) 𝐴 e.  𝑙,𝑇,𝑝 =  𝑙,𝑇,𝑝 + 𝑅𝑇𝑙𝑛( 𝑝𝐴𝑝°) 𝐴 𝐴 𝑝°𝑝𝐴 β€’ Raoult’s Law tells us that 𝑝 = 𝑋 π‘βˆ— π΄βˆ—π΄ f.  𝑙,𝑇,𝑝 =  𝑙,𝑇,𝑝 + 𝑅𝑇𝑙𝑛( 𝑋𝐴 𝐴) 𝐴 𝐴 𝑝𝐴 βˆ— 𝑝𝐴 g. Thus, for a mixture: 𝐴𝑙,𝑇,𝑝 =  𝑙,𝐴,𝑝 + 𝑅𝑇𝑙𝑛( ) π‘π΄βˆ— β€’ Chemical potential of β€œA” in the mixture = chemical potential β€œA” in pure liquid + mole fraction of β€œA” in mixture β€’ X As the mole fraction, always less than one β€’ RTlnX
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