Topics in Behavioral
Neurobiology of Stress
A. Awakenings Book
- Proceeding encephalitis—they had the flu. (The Spanish Flu)
- For some that recovered, it preceded for some the encephalitis lethargia.
- Correlation. Not proved to be causational.
- Giving them L-DOPA ‘freed them’ so must have had to do with dopamine systems.
- Eventually effected them motor and cognitively.
B. HPA axis and sympathetic arousal has to do with stress
- Brain- anterior pituitary-adrenal cortex-glucocorticoids (HPA axis)
- Adrenal cortex releases cortisol/ glucocorticoids into bloodstream.
- Brain- sympathetic nervous system- adrenal medulla- norepinephrine
(noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) (Sympathetic arousal)
C. Stress goes to pituitary gland and hypothalamus
- Pituitary gland—adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)—adrenal medulla—secretion
- Stress- hypothalamus—corticotropin—pituitary gland (see above path)
- Stress—hypothalamus—autonomic nervous system (sympathetic division)—adrenal
medulla--- secretion of catecholamines
D. Sympathetic arousal is short term stress response and HPA axis is long term stress
- Sympathetic arousal involves the kidney (arousal gland) - Both come online during stressful situation – but cortical response comes on a little
bit slower but lingers a lot longer.
E. Brain regions involved in stress response
- Other regions activate the hypothalamic stress pathways, but are also activated by it
and mediate stress responses including
- Locus coeruleus
- Frontal cortex