Class Notes (1,100,000)
US (470,000)
Xavier (200)
NURS (50)
Lecture 3

NURS 364 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Bone Marrow, Complete Blood Count, Red Blood Cell

Course Code
NURS 364
Deborah Van Kuiken

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 27 pages of the document.
Alterations in Hematologic Function
NURS 364 - Pathophysiology
What is Blood ?
Blood consists of:
Red blood cells that contain hemoglobin that binds oxygen.
White blood cells fight infection.
Platelets that help the blood to clot
The fluid component of the blood serves as transport medium
Plasma contains various kinds of proteins:
Albumin (pH buffer)
Globulins (antibodies)
Fibrinogen (clotting aid)
Complement protein
After birth:
Bone marrow gradually takes over
Red bone marrow
Hematopoietically active
Flat bones
Distal ends of humerus/femur
Yellow bone marrow
Fat cells
Regulation of Hematopoiesis
Hematopoietic Growth factors
find more resources at
find more resources at

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Stimulate proliferation, differentiation and functional activation of various blood cell
precursors in bone marrow
Red Blood Cells:
Hormone Erythropoietin (EPO) from kidneys
Colony-stimulating factors
Cytokines: histamine, TNF, prostaglandins, interleukin
Anemias--- lack of capacity of the blood to carry oxygen
Red Blood Cells (RBCs)—nhave their shape because they have to be flexible and they carry
oxygen and the oxygen has to move easily back and forth…. Hemoglobin is near the surface
Non-nucleated biconcave disc
Hemoglobin (Hgb)
2 pairs of polypeptide chains attached to heme unit which surrounds an atom of
iron (Fe)—280 million hemoglobin in each RBC
4 molecules of O2 can be carried by each Hgb
Hgb synthesis depends upon Fe intake
Fe absorbed in GI tract
Carried by transferrin and stored in liver as ferritin
RBCs squeeze through blood vessel membranes to enter the circulation as RETICULOCYTES
(mature into RBC in the blood (24-48 hours)
Kidneys increase ERYTHROPOIETIN
find more resources at
find more resources at

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

In response to decreased O2
Kidneys increase ERYTHROPOIETIN
In response to decreased O2
Reticulocytes--- immature rbc’s released if needed
RBC Destruction/ Recycling
Lifespan 120 days----6-8 micrometers in diameter
Destruction via macrophages:
Spleen----some passage ways are a quarter of the size of the RBC
Lymph nodes
Amino acids from globulin and the iron (Fe) from heme are salvaged and reused
RBC Destruction/ Recycling
Bulk of heme converted to bilirubin
Bilirubin bind to plasma protein (insoluble in plasma) called unconjugated bilirubin
Liver binds bilirubin to glucoronide to make it water soluble: conjugated bilirubin
find more resources at
find more resources at
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version