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Lecture 8

NURS 364 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Exocrine Gland, Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis


Department
Nursing
Course Code
NURS 364
Professor
Deborah Van Kuiken
Lecture
8

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Disorders of the Endocrine System: Diabetes Mellitus
Glucose---- glkycogen turns to glucose or you get it from diet
Ingested in diet, absorbed in small intestine, goes directly to liver
Metabolism of glucose yields CO2 and H2O
Most efficient energy source
Brain and nervous tissue rely solely on glucose—without nervous tissues shrink and lose function
Sources of Glucose
Glucose Metabolism
Regulated by liver
Glycogenolysis: glycogen to glucose—not enough glucose stored glycogen turns to glucose
Glycogenesis: glucose to glycogen--- too much glucose and it gets stores
Fat Metabolism
Lipase breaks down fats into fatty acids & glycerol, glycerol enters glycolytic pathway to produce energy
(gluconeogenesis)
Protein Metabolism
Some proteins - gluconeogenesis
Hormonal Control of Glucose
Pancreas
[Pancreatic acini
Exocrine gland
Digestive enzymes—so glucose can be absorbed ]
Islets of Langerhans
Endocrine
Beta cells – secrete insulin—makes glucose levels low
Alpha cells – secrete glucagon--- when it is low
Delta cells – secrete somatostatin (stops insulin & glucagon release)
Glucose Homeostasis:
A Negative Feedback Mechanism
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Insulin
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Promotes glucose uptake by target cells—muscle, fat, liver
Promotes glucose storage in the liver (Glycogenesis)
Increases protein synthesis
Prevents
Glycogenolysis
fat & protein breakdown (Gluconeogenesis)
Insulin Synthesis & Release
Stored in secretory granules and released from beta cells in pancreas
Release regulated by circulating glucose
2 phases of release
Initial release is immediate (3-5 minutes)
Subsequent release returns to normal (2-3 hrs)
Glucagon—when you have a low blood glucose it increases
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