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Lecture 13

NURS 364 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Antigen-Presenting Cell, Adaptive Immune System, Innate Immune System


Department
Nursing
Course Code
NURS 364
Professor
Deborah Van Kuiken
Lecture
13

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Innate Immune System
Pathophysiology NURS 364
The Immune System
A complex system that is responsible for distinguishing us from everything foreign to us, and for
protecting us against infections and foreign substances. ----fights off pathogens, whether
bacteria, fungi, protist or virus
The immune system works to seek and kill invaders.
Immunity
Innate immunity Adaptive immunity
rapid response same response no matter what type of pathogen, will be the same each time it sees the
pathogen whether it’s the first time or the 36329221st time
Humoral Cell-mediated
Components Components
Macrophages antigen presenting cells
Granulocytes T-cells
Natural killer cells B-cells
Complement Antibodies
Other chemicals: HCL, lysozyme Complement
Innate Immunity
“Innate” because shared by all animals and exist from birth.
Action is immediate (It is active at the time of infection) --
Response is non-specific
Does not distinguish between different microbes—doesn’t matter what causes it
doesn’t even need to be a pathogen just a stimulus
Response is not enhanced on enhanced on repeated exposure to pathogen
Response does not lead to immunological memory.
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Innate Immune System
It is divided into two stages:
non-inflammatory reaction (body’s static defenses)
skin, gastric acid (pH 2), lysozyme in tears, saliva, mucous
local inflammation
migration of phagocytes and plasma protein into infected tissues
Innate Immune System
Inflammation
Works against invaders that breach physical barriers of skin and mucosa
Vital role of inflammation:
Limit and control the inflammatory process
Prevent and limit infection and further damage
Interact with components of the adaptive immune system
Prepare the area of injury for healing
Plasma Protein Systems
Protein systems necessary to an effective inflammatory response:
Complement system
Coagulation system
Kinin system
To prevent activation in an unnecessary situations each protein is in an inactive form (Pro-
enzymes)
Sequentially activated
Plasma Protein Systems
Complement System----- Dangerous little guys can cause big damage they are tightly regulated
~20 different proteins that work together to:
Destroy pathogens directly
Activates or collaborates with every other component of the inflammatory
response
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Activation of complement system is tightly regulated because end results can be
dangerous (can lead to autoimmunity)
Activation by antigen antibody complexes
Figure 2-18
Plasma Protein Systems
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