PSYC 353 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Social Learning Theory, Operant Conditioning, John Bowlby

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24 Jan 2018
Chapter 2: Explaining Intimate Partner Violence
Class Notes
IPV Prevalence Rates
US Centers for Disease Control & National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey
12 million women and men experience physical violence, rape, or stalking by an
intimate partner.
1 in 4 women in comparison to 1 in 7 men experiences severe IPV
79% of police reported IPV cases included female victims
Polyvictimization (multiple abuse types) is more prevalent for women
Men tend to use more severe types of violence (beating up, choking)
Women perpetrators tend to kick, slap, bite or throw objects
Women tend to sustain higher rates of injury as the perpetrator and the victim.
Women are more vulnerable to IPV when pregnant
Women are more likely to die from IPV
***The most significant risk factor for IPV homicide is prior partner violence***
IPV has evolved since the 70’s from not even seen as a crime to now include protections
for multiple partner types:
Current or ex spouses
Current or ex- dating partners
Same sex and opposite sex
Types of violence have also evolved;
Sexual violence
Theoretical Explanations of IPV
Learned Helplessness (Seligman, 1976)
Why do women stay?
Learned helpless is a fearful passivity resulting from the belief that you have no control
over your situation no matter what you do.
Most important: Learned helplessness on focused on the victim’s behavior and failed to explain
why the perpetrator engaged in violence.
This view states victims see their abusive situations as inescapable (Walker, 1985)
Walker was the first to attempt to explain why the battered individual stays.
Walker identified a cycle of violence (tension, acute violence, followed by calm & loving
behavior from perpetrator)
Criticisms of Walker’s Battered Women Syndrome
What about cases where the victim does leave
Failed to consider the financial and legal barriers to leaving
Focused on white, middle class and heterosexual women (only victims)
Attachment Theory
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