HLTH 230b Lecture 9: Women's Health

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Global Health Studies
HLTH 230b
Kristina Talbert- Slagle

GLOBAL HEALTH: CHALLENGES AND RESPONSES 4/6/17: Women’s Health  Timeline of woman’s health – affects every part of timeline – think about them in the context of the spheres 1. During pregnancy a. Alcohol – fetal alcohol disorders b. Smoking – less pregnancies, more miscarriage/low birth weight/early labor c. Female genital mutilation increases risk to mother and baby – o Mother – more C-sections needed, more hemorrhages o Baby – need resuscitation, more death d. Obesity – more difficult to get pregnant o Greater risk of gestational diabetes (woman is diagnosed when she’s pregnant) o Baby – can have birth defects; also increases risk of non-communicable diseases e. Malnutrition f. Sex-selective abortion o Generally, girls are aborted o Expected male to female ratio: 100 males/105 females  India: 112 M/100 F  China: 111 M/100 F g. Infanticide o Female infant killing o By poison, starvation o Usually done by women – they almost see it as a mercy-killing  Birth  Childhood 1. Selective abandonment – girls have larger chance of being abandoned a. Boys have a larger chance of being adopted 2. Education a. Various reasons why girls don’t necessarily complete education o Water carrying o Menstruation and lack of sanitation facilities o Paying for school o Preference based on gender  Adolescence (following onset of puberty, before individual becomes an adult) 1. Woman who has had gestational diabetes has higher risk of having it continued 2. Menstruation – can lead to iron deficiency (can be difficult for girls to get iron because of resources and where they live or bc boys get food first) a. Symptoms – weakness, fatigue, bloated, exhaustion b. Without adequate sanitation facilities, women can drop out of school c. Toxic shock syndrome – leaving tampons in too long in developed country (leads to cytokine storm); in the Congo, happens when you can’t properly evacuate blood from the vagina 3. Sexual violence a. Risk of contracting HIV is greater in a sexually violent interaction o Power differential which can mean woman doesn’t get say in protection/condom use o Lacerations in genital tissue make her at greater risk to contract HIV (and you’re more likely to get lacerations in violent interaction) 4. Sex work 5. Rape a. As a tool of war 6. Marriage a. Young marriages b. Dowry violence – if woman’s dowry wasn’t considered to be sufficient, there can be violence against a woman 7. Intimate Partner Violence a. Sexual violence, physical violence, psychological aggression, negative behaviors like stalking b
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