HLTH 230b Lecture 2: HIV AIDS

3 Pages
Unlock Document

Global Health Studies
HLTH 230b
Kristina Talbert- Slagle

GLOBAL HEALTH: CHALLENGES AND RESPONSES 1/24/17: HIV/AIDS  ADA caps  Incidence: number of new infections over certain time period 1. Often recorded over 1 year 2. Prevalence: number of existing cases in a population a. 36.7 million: people currently living with HIV b. 300: new cases/class period (1.25 hours) o 105/300 are 15-24 years old c. 157: deaths during class period d. 35 million: deaths in the world so far from AIDS 3. HIV is bloodborne, and also transferred through semen/vaginal fluids, pregnancy and breastfeeding a. Transmission through o female genital tract: 1/200 to 1/2000 probability o Male genital tract: 1/700 – 1/3000 o Intestinal: 1/5 – 1/10 (maternal to fetal transfer) o Placenta: 1/10 – 1/20 o Bloodstream: 95/100 – 1/150 o Majority of transmissions between heterosexual people  Emergence of HIV-1 1. Likely around 1900 in Africa transmitted from primate a. Called simian IV (SIV) in non-human primates 2. Few thousand people living in Africa with HIV in early 1900s 3. Spread through increased interactions, consuming non-human primates, 4. Graphic: a. 22,000 genes/cell b. Central dogma: DNA  RNA  protein c. HIV has 9 genes d. Steps of infection o HIV binds to CD4, then to the cell, then fuses and dumps contents into cell. o Uses reverse transcriptase and its own RNA to make viral DNA  Retrovirus reverses central dogma and uses RNA to make DNA o Virus is error prone: high mutation rate o Cell tries to block reverse transcription, HIV tricks cell into removing its own defense mechanisms that try to block this o Integrase uses cellular stuff to integrate viral DNA into nucleus and cellular DNA  Cell is forever infected with DNA, to rid is to rid the cell  Now uses vDNA to make vRNA and viral proteins  Infects CD4 memory cells, so after another kind of infection like polio, HIV-infected CDH T cells replicate in immune response and increase copies of HIV in body o Immature viral cell created, non-infective  Creates protease which allows cell to mature into virus particle  Produces 10 billion virus particles per day  Coupled with high mutations rate means that HIV greatly mutates its viral DNA everyday  Usually has drug-resistant variants already in body due to high mutation and replication rate e. Many locations where intervention can occur to block HIV infection o AZT tried to block reverse transcriptase but HIV quickly becomes drug
More Less

Related notes for HLTH 230b

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.