ENV222H1

Interdisciplinary Environmental Studies (formerly ENV222Y1)

University of Toronto St. George

Building upon†ENV221H1, shows how environmental studies is working to knit different disciplinary perspectives into one interdisciplinary body of knowledge; interplay of science and values in definition and framing of issues; roles of markets, politics and ethics in developing solutions; local to global scale; historical and current timeframes.
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Mark Hathaway

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ENV222H1 Lecture 6: Historical Perspectives: Energy, Industrialisation, Consumerism (Feb. 12th, 2019)
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ENV222 - Lecture 6 - Historical Perspectives: Energy, Industrialization, Consumerism Before 1800, of mechanical energy came from human labour Consider: What connections might exist between the industrial revolution and the...

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ENV222H1
Mark Hathaway
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School of Environment
ENV222H1
Mark Hathaway

ENV222H1 Syllabus for Mark Hathaway — Winter 2019

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School of the Environment, University of Toronto (Semi-final version)
Course Syllabus: ENV 222: Interdisciplinary Environmental Studies
Winter 2019 Tuesdays, 3- 5 PM Location: ES1050 (Earth Sciences, 5 Bancroft Ave)
Course Instructor: Mark Hathaway, PhD, Sessional Lecturer, School of the Environment
Office Hours: Tuesdays from 2 to 3 PM in ES 2104: Please sign up on Quercus for an appointment
E-mail: mark.hathaway[at]utoronto.ca (e-mail is my preferred method of communication)
Phone/Voicemail: (647) 247-6450
Teaching Assistants:
Name
E-mail
Tutorial Sections
Peter Bikoulis, Head TA:
peter.bikoulis[at]utoronto.ca
Lauren Spring:
lauren.spring[at]mail.utoronto.ca
Bmjk Brennus:
bmjk.brennus[at]mail.utoronto.ca
Note: In general, you can expect an answer to e-mail inquiries within 24 hours from Monday to Friday
(inquiries made on Friday will be answered by Monday). Specific questions regarding assignments
should be addressed to your TA. Medical certificates and requests for extensions (made at least 48
hours before the due date & time) should also be submitted to the head TA.
Important: To speed processing, please put ENV222 somewhere in the e-mail subject line
Course Description
Analysing perils such as rapid climate change, biodiversity loss, stratospheric ozone depletion, ocean
acidification, land system changes, and key nutrient cycles, Rockström et al. (2009) observe that we have
already exceeded a number of key boundaries that delineate the safe operating space for humanity on
the planet particularly biodiversity loss and climate change and that we are rapidly approaching the
limits in a number of other areas such as ocean acidification. After thoroughly reviewing the current
evidence, Ehrlich & Ehrlich (2013) conclude that our current global civilisation is threatened by collapse
unless we undertake concerted action to address the most serious problems threatening the well-being
of the entire Earth community. Meanwhile, social and economic inequality continues to grow. Overall,
our response to the key challenges threatening the well-being and even survival of human societies
and living ecosystems seems far weaker than the situation requires (Crompton, 2010), despite the fact
that promising policies, technologies, and social innovations to address the global ecological crisis exist.
This course examines some of the scientific, technological, economic, political, psychological, and ethical
dimensions of the current ecological crisis, working to knit different perspectives into one
interdisciplinary body of knowledge using a variety of theoretical frameworks. The course examines the
nature of current environmental (and related social) problems and their historical causes. It then looks
at strategies and actions currently being undertaken to address the crisis and then goes on to examine
what a sustainable world might look like as well as possible strategies for advancing towards that goal.
Course Learning Outcomes
By the end of this course, students will be able to:
1. Describe and understand some of the key threats and challenges posed by the ecological crisis and
analyse how these are interrelated.
2. Explain why many of the key challenges being faced could be described as wicked problems and
why it is necessary to adopt an inter (or trans) disciplinary approach to understand and address them.
3. Describe and analyse how technological, political, economic, psychological, perceptual, and ethical
factors have contributed to the genesis of the ecological crisis.
ENV222H1S-2019 Page 2
4. Describe and analyse the nature of sustainability, describe some key characteristics of sustainability
(including its technological, political, economic, and ethical dimensions), and envision what kinds of
transformations might be necessary to achieve sustainability in practice.
5. Describe, analyse, and assess approaches that have been adopted to date to address the ecological
crisis and analyse and assess some possible strategies to achieve sustainable human societies and to
regenerate ecosystems.
Course Organisation
Teaching and Learning Philosophy
In this course, it is assumed that all of us (teachers and students) will learn from each other and that
students will engage actively with the course readings, lectures, discussions, and assignments. While
lively discussion and probing questions are always encouraged, it is also assumed that each person will
treat others with respect. Students are expected to do all required (core) readings, attend lectures and
tutorials, engage in appropriate practices and methods for assignments, and think critically. Critical
thinking may be demonstrated by articulating a clear understanding of key course concepts; applying
these concepts appropriately to specific questions and new contexts; putting forth logical arguments
backed by appropriate course materials (readings and lectures), examples, and evidence; making
connections between different concepts and perceiving broader patterns; and seeking out the concrete
implications for values, policies, and actions.
Electronic Devices Policy
During class and tutorial time, the use of electronic devices for making calls, texting, playing games,
watching videos, or surfing the internet is prohibited. Computers and tablets only may be used
exclusively for taking notes and for interacting with lectures via the Classroom Response System (Top
Hat). During tutorial discussion times, only the person taking notes for each group may use their
computer or tablet.
During the final class, students are encouraged to bring a computer to class to prepare and submit their
final course evaluation.
Classroom Response System: Top Hat
Attendance and active participation in all classes are an essential part of this course. To facilitate your
participation in a large, lecture-based class, we will be using the Top Hat classroom response system in
class. You will be able to submit answers to in-class questions using iOS or Android smartphones and
tablets, laptops, or through text messaging. Attendance for each class will also be taken using Top Hat.
If this is impossible for you due to an accessibility or related issue, please contact the course instructor.
You can visit https://bit.ly/2bP4mUN for the Student Quick Start Guide which outlines how you will
register for a Top Hat account, as well as providing a brief overview to get you up and running on the
system. An email invitation will also be sent to your school email account or you may join directly using
the Join Code available on Quercus.
Should you require assistance with Top Hat at any time, due to the fact that they require specific user
information to troubleshoot these issues, please contact their Support Team directly by way of email
(support@tophat.com), the in-app support button, or by calling 1-888-663-5491.
Top Hat requires a subscription, paid for by the student. There are several options available:
1-semester license: $26 dollars (unlimited number of courses)
1-year license: $38 dollars via tophat.com and $34.20 if they purchase in the bookstore
5-year license: $75 dollars via tophat.com and $67.50 via the bookstore
Use of Quercus (Portal/Learning Management System)
It is your responsibility to check Quercus frequently (at least once a week). You must have a
mail.utoronto.ca (or @utoronto.ca) email address indicated on ACORN to properly receive messages from
the course instructor through Quercus. Please note that all written assignments will be submitted
ENV222H1S-2019 Page 3
through Quercus. It is your responsibility to ensure that your written assignments are uploaded properly.
Please make sure the confirmation page appears after submitting your assignments and, if possible,
make a copy of the confirmation page (print to a pdf document and save).
Tutorials
Each student will attend six tutorials (during the even-numbered course weeks). Tutorials provide
students an opportunity to discuss the course subject matter in a smaller group as well as to prepare for
course assignments, quizzes, and exams. Each tutorial will be led by one of the teaching assistants.
Attendance is required to ensure adequate preparation for exams and papers and active participation
will also be part of your participation grade.
Evaluation
The grades for the course will be based on the following percentages for each activity:
Participation (see details below)
20%
Quizzes (2 online quizzes, 5% each): Feb. 8-11 and Mar. 22-25
10%
Assignment #1 (1000-1200 words): Due Feb. 24
25%
Assignment #2 (1000-1200 words): Due April 5
25%
Final Exam: During the final exam period
20%
Participation (20%)
Students are expected to attend all course lectures and tutorials and to participate actively in tutorial
discussions and activities. Lecture participation marks will be based on both attendance and active
participation using the Classroom Response System. As well, students may earn participation marks by
participating in the (anonymous) mid-term course evaluation and by proposing quiz and exam questions
using the Quizzical tool of Quercus. (Each question accepted into the pool will receive 0.5 bonus marks,
up to a maximum of 3 marks.)
Activity
Marks
Maximum Possible
Lecture attendance and participation
1.0/class
10.0
Tutorial Participation (6 tutorials)
1.0/tutorial
6.0
Mid-term Course Evaluation (due Feb. 26)
2.0
2.0
Reading Evaluation Survey (due Mar. 31)
2.0
2.0
Bonus Participation Activities (see below)
0.5/question
2.0
Maximum Total Possible:
20.0
Note that participation marks will not be given for the first lecture and one other lecture to be determined
at the course instructors discretion.
Each student will be invited to submit two suggested quiz/exam questions during two different weeks of
the course using the Quizzical tool accessible via Quercus. The questions must relate to the lecture or
readings of the week in question (and referenced accordingly) and take the form of a multiple-choice
question with at least four responses. Each question accepted by the instructor into the question bank
will earn 0.5 participation marks. See the instructions on Quercus for more details.
Online Quizzes (2 x 5% each)
There will be two multiple choice online quizzes accessible via Quercus, one covering the lectures and
readings of weeks 1-5 of the course and second covering weeks 6-10. Each quiz will open on a Friday at 9
AM and close the following Monday at 9 AM. You may attempt each quiz three times, seeking to
improve your responses each time. Only the best of the three attempts will count.
ENV222H1S-2019 Page 4
The first quiz will take place from February 8-11 and the second from March 22-25. You are permitted
to refer to your notes, posted lecture slides, and readings while taking the quiz, but each attempt will be
time-limited. (Note that you may see different randomised questions on each quiz attempt.)
Assignments
There will be two written assignments, each a maximum of 1200 words excluding the reference list.
Details of each assignment will be posted on Quercus along with a rubric detailing the criteria for
evaluation. Assignments will be due at 11:59 PM on the dates listed below:
Sun., February 24
Assignment #2:
Fri., April 5
Turnitin
Normally, students will be required to submit their course essays to Turnitin.com for a review of textual
similarity and detection of possible plagiarism. In doing so, students will allow their essays to be included
as source documents in the Turnitin.com reference database, where they will be used solely for the
purpose of detecting plagiarism. The terms that apply to the Universitys use of the Turnitin.com service
are described on the Turnitin.com web site.
If a student does not wish to participate in Turnitin, the student MUST advise the head TA at least three
weeks before the assignment due date as alternate arrangements for screening the assignment must be
arranged. (Normally, this will entail the submission of rough notes and drafts along with their final
assignment.)
Late and Length Penalties
Please follow the length guidelines for each assignment carefully. A 2% penalty for up to the first 100
words over the maximum length will be deducted from the assignment (i.e. from 1 to 100 words over the
limit) and 5% for each additional 100 words (101 to 200 over, etc.).
Late papers will be assessed a 3% reduction of the value of the assignment per day late, unless
previously negotiated with the head TA over acceptable medical or related reasons. Unless previously
negotiated due to an acceptable issue, late papers will only be accepted for one week after the due
date. Papers later than this will not be assessed. Please do not leave potential issues to the last
minute to discuss with the head TA.
If assignments are submitted late because of medical reasons, a signed medical note is required, stating
the name of doctor, nature of illness, duration of illness, and expected delay and/or impact on the
completion of student work. Students must use the official U of T medical certificate (available online at
http://www.utoronto.ca/health/forms/medcert.pdf) and submit it to the head TA. Please inform the
head TA in advance if you anticipate that your assignment will be late on account of medical
reasons.
Remarking Policy
If a student believes that their assignment has not been fairly assessed, they should first read all the
comments (both in the text and terminal comments) and consult the assignment rubric. If, after reviewing
these, the student would like to request a reassessment, they should write their TA within one week
of receiving their assignment grade with a written justification explaining why the assignment
should be reassessed. The TA will then consider the request and remark if they believe this is justified.
If the student is still not satisfied, they may appeal the grade to the head TA (or, if the head TA is their
TA, the course instructor), but must submit a written rationale to do so.
Final Exam
A multiple-choice (scantron) final exam will be scheduled during the final exam period. Students will be
allowed to bring one, double-sided page of notes (8.5 x 11 paper) into the exam. Students are therefore
encouraged to take detailed notes of the lectures and readings throughout the course to help
prepare the summary notes that can be used during the final exam.
ENV222H1S-2019 Page 5
Course Texts and Required Readings
All course texts will be available online via Quercus. In some cases, to access electronic journal articles
and some book chapters, you will need to log into the University of Toronto library.
Note: Students are expected to read all core readings. Optional readings are included for those who
wish to explore a theme in more depth. Optional readings will not be covered in course quizzes or in
regular exam questions (unless the material is covered in course lectures), but may be helpful in
understanding key ideas, writing your assignment papers, and in answering bonus questions.
The list of readings included in the syllabus may be modified somewhat during the course please consult
Quercus for an up-to-date list of core and optional readings.
Course Outline and Weekly Readings
Week 1 (January 8): Course Introduction
Learning Outcomes
Students will gain an overview of the course and have a clear understanding of expectations for
participation, assignments, and evaluation.
Students will be able to define and understand some key concepts such as ecology, environment, and
the Anthropocene.
Students will begin to reflect on and develop an understanding of the nature of the ecological crisis,
including problems related to poverty and inequality, resource depletion, and waste accumulation.
Core Readings (read all of the following)
Ehrlich, P. R., & Ehrlich, A. H. (2013). Can a collapse of global civilization be avoided? Proceedings of the Royal
Society B: Biological Sciences, 280(20122845), 1-9.
Hathaway, M. & Boff, L. (2009). The Tao of liberation: Exploring the ecology of transformation. (pp. 1-22).
Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.
Optional Readings
Brown, L. R. (2009). Plan B 4.0: Mobilizing to save civilization, pp. xi-27. New York, NY: W. W. Norton &
Company, Inc.
MacDonald, D. (2015). Human capacity, self-interest and moral restraint: Attempting to understand the ecological
crisis. Paper delivered at the 2015 annual conference of the Environmental Studies Association of Canada,
June 2, 2015, University of Ottawa.
Week 2 (January 15): The Ecological Crisis Scientific and Technological Dimensions
Learning Outcomes
Students will gain an understanding of key ecological challenges as wicked problems and begin to
reflect on the importance of an inter/transdisciplinary approach to understand and address these.
Students will gain a clearer understanding of the scientific dimensions of key ecological problems
including the concept of planetary boundaries (and the nature of each of these) as well as the
interrelationship between key ecological challenges.
Drawing on systems theory, students will explore the nature of feedback loops and how these
influence ecological changes.
Students will analyse the relationship between population, affluence/consumption, and technology in
generating ecological impacts (I=PAT).
Core Readings (read all of the following)
Brown, V. A., Harris, J. A., & Russell, J. Y. (Eds.). (2010). Tackling wicked problems through the transdisciplinary
imagination, pp. 3-21, 26-30. London, UK: Routledge.
Rockström, J., Steffen, W., Noone, K., Persson, Å., Chapin III, F. S., Lambin, E.,… Schellnhuber, H. J. (2009).
Planetary boundaries: Exploring the safe operating space for humanity. Ecology and society, 14(2), 32.
Hansen, James (2012). Why I must speak out about climate change. TED talk:
https://www.ted.com/talks/james_hansen_why_i_must_speak_out_about_climate_change
ENV222H1S-2019 Page 6
Optional Readings
Hulme, Mike (2009). Chapter 3: The Performance of Science. In Why we disagree about climate change:
Understanding controversy, inaction and opportunity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 72-108.
Nye, David E. (2006). Chapter 1. Can we define technology.? In Technology matters: Questions to live with, pp. 1-
15. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Ehrlich, P. R., & Ehrlich, A. H. (2004). Chapter 5: Technology matters. In One with Nineveh: Politics,
consumption, and the human future, pp. 138-180. Washington, DC: Island Press.
First Tutorial Set held Wednesday, Jan. 16 (101-301) and Thursday, Jan. 17 (401-801)
Week 3 (January 22): The Ecological Crisis Political, Economic, and Social Dimensions
Learning Outcomes
Students will be able to analyse and understand the connection between economic growth, corporate
organisation, finance, monoculture, and domination and the ecological crisis (including its social
dimensions) as well as some of the assumptions underlying the dominant global economic system.
Students will learn how ecological footprints can be used to understand the relative impact of
different nations and social classes.
Students will understand more clearly the political challenges posed by the ecological crisis and
continue to deepen the analysis of population, affluence, technology, and ecological impact.
Students will analyse in more detail the concept of the Anthropocene as well as some alternative
ways to understand our current epoch in light of an analysis of relative consumption and economics.
Core Readings (read all of the following)
Hathaway, M. & Boff, L. (2009). The Tao of liberation: Exploring the ecology of transformation, pp. 22-61.
Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.
Carter, Neil (2007). Chapter 7: The environment as a policy problem. In The politics of the environment: Ideas,
activism, policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 174-181.
Meyer, William B. (1996). Chapter 2: Changes in population and society. In Human impact on the Earth, pp. 39-
50. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Optional Readings
Hartley, D. (2016). Anthropocene, Capitalocene, and the problem of culture. In Altvater, E., Crist, E., Haraway,
D., Hartley, D., Parenti, C., & McBrien, J. Anthropocene or capitalocene? Nature, history, and the crisis of
capitalism. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com
Marten, G. G. (2010). Chapter 2: Population and feedback systems. Human ecology: Basic concepts for sustainable
development, pp. 14-25. London, UK: Routledge.
Steffen et al (2018). Trajectories of the Earth system in the Anthropocene. Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences, 115(33), 8252-8259.
Battersby, S. (2017). Can humankind escape the tragedy of the commons? Proceeding of the National Academy of
Sciences, 114(1), 7-10.
Week 4 (January 29): The Ecological Crisis Ethical and Psychological Dimensions
Learning Outcomes
Students will gain a clearer understanding of how values and perceptions (or worldviews) affect
human-nature interactions as well as some factors that may have contributed to a more
anthropocentric worldview.
Students will be able to describe some ethical frameworks including deep ecology, ecofeminism, social
ecology, and spiritual-religious perspectives.
Students will come to understand some of the key psychological and perceptual challenges may
impede actions addressing key ecological problems.
Core Readings (read all of the following)
Orr, D. (2006). The trial. Conservation Biology, 20(6), 1570-1573.
Attfield, Robin (2003). Chapter 1: Environmental problems and humanity. In Environmental Ethics, pp. 1-30.
Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
ENV222H1S-2019 Page 7
Hemple, M. (2014). Ecoliteracy: Knowledge is not enough. State of the World 2014: Governing for Sustainability
pp. 41-52. Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute.
Markowitz, E. and Shariff, A. 2012. Climate change and moral judgment. Nature Climate Change, p.243-247.
Optional Readings
Capra, F. (1996). Deep ecology - A new paradigm. Chapter 1 of The web of life: A new scientific understanding of
living systems (pp. 3-13). New York, NY: Anchor Books.
Marten, G. G. (2010). Chapter 9: Perceptions of nature. Human ecology: Basic concepts for sustainable
development, pp. 121-135. London, UK: Routledge.
Merchant, C. (2008). Introduction. Ecology: Key concepts in critical theory, pp. 15-39. Humanity Books.
Scharper, S. B. (2013). From sustainable development to sustainable liberation - Toward an Anthropo-harmonic
ethic. In S. Appolloni (Ed.), For Earths sake: Toward a compassionate ecology (pp. 180-199). Toronto, ON:
Novalis.
Second Tutorial Set held Wednesday, Jan. 30 (101-301) and Thursday, Jan. 31 (401-801)
Week 5 (Feb. 5): Historical Perspectives: Agriculture, Food Production, and Land Use
Learning Outcomes
Students will be able to describe and analyse how changes in food production transformed human-
nature relations and contributed to the current ecological crisis.
Students will gain a clearer understanding of the impacts of modern industrial agriculture on
ecosystems as well as how such agriculture may contribute to social inequality.
Students will continue to deepen their understanding of the Anthropocene or Capitalocene.
Core Readings (read all of the following)
Moran, E. F. (2006). Chapter 2: The way things were… People and nature: An introduction to human ecological
relations, pp. 26-56. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Marten, G. G. (2010). Chapter 10: Unsustainable human-ecosystem interactions. Human ecology: Basic concepts
for sustainable development, pp. 136-156. London, UK: Routledge.
Hathaway, M. (2016). Agroecology and permaculture: Addressing key ecological problems by rethinking and
redesigning agricultural systems. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 6(2), 239-250. doi:
10.1007/s13412-015-0254-8
Optional Readings
Burney, D. A., & Flannery, T. F. (2005). Fifty millennia of catastrophic extinctions after human contact. Trends in
Ecology & Evolution, 20(7), 395-401. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2005.04.022
Barje, T. and Erlandson, J. 2013. Looking forward, looking back: Humans, anthropogenic change, and the
Anthropocene. Anthropocene 4(2013): 116-121.
Sutton, M. Q., & Anderson, E. N. (2010). Chapter 9: Intensive agriculture. Introduction to cultural ecology, pp.
251-289. Plymouth, UK: AltaMira Press.
Moore, Jason W. (2017) The Capitalocene, Part I: On the nature and origins of our ecological crisis, The Journal of
Peasant Studies, 44:3, 594-630, DOI: 10.1080/03066150.2016.1235036
Malm, A., & Hornborg, A. (2014). The geology of mankind? A critique of the Anthropocene narrative. The
Anthropocene Review, 1(1), 6269. https://doi.org/10.1177/2053019613516291
Shiva, V. (2015). Women and biodiversity feed the world, not corporations and GMOs. Common Dreams:
https://www.commondreams.org/views/2015/05/20/women-and-biodiversity-feed-world-not-corporations-and-
gmos
Online Quiz Open from Friday, February 8 at 9 AM to Monday, February 11 at 9 AM
Week 6 (February 12): Historical Perspectives: Energy, Industrialisation, and Consumerism
Learning Outcomes
Students will be able to describe and analyse how changes in the use of energy and the industrial
revolution transformed human-nature relations and contributed to the current ecological crisis.
Students will gain a clearer understanding of the nature and genesis of consumerism as well as how
consumerism contributes to ecological destruction.
ENV222H1S-2019 Page 8
Core Readings (read all of the following)
Ponting, C. (2007). Chapter 12: The second great transition. A new green history of the world, pp. 265-293. London,
UK: Vintage.
Mokyr. J. (1990). Chapter 6: The later nineteenth century, 1830-1914. The lever of riches: Technological creativity
and economic progress, pp. 113-148. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Trentmann, F. 2016. How humans became consumers: A history. The Atlantic, November 28, 2016.
(https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2016/11/how-humans-becameconsumers/508700/).
Optional Readings
Assadourian, Erik (2010). The rise and fall of consumer culture. In Eric Assadourian (ed.), State of the world
Transforming cultures: From consumerism to sustainability. New York: WW Norton. Retrieved from
http://www.worldwatch.org/files/pdf/Chapter%201.pdf
Nye, David E. (2006). Chapter 6. Sustainable abundance, or ecological crisis? In Technology matters: Questions to
live with, pp. 87-108. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Smart, Barry (2010). Consuming: Historical and conceptual issues. In Consumer Society: Critical Issues and
Environmental Consequences, pp. 1-29. London, UK: Sage.
Third Tutorials held Wednesday, Feb. 13 (101-301) and Thursday, Feb. 14 (401-801)
Reading Week: Feb. 18-22
Assignment #1 Due: Sunday, Feb. 24 (11:59 PM)
Mid-term Course Evaluation Due Tuesday, Feb. 26
Week 7 (Feb. 26): Clean Production, Ecomodernisation, Geoengineering, & Ecotechnology
Learning Outcomes
Students will be able to analyse and assess the possibilities and limitations of technological
innovations including clean production and ecomodernisation.
Students will be able to analyse the challenges and possible solutions to the problems posed by
plastics.
Students will more clearly understand the possibilities, potential problems, and ethical questions
evident in geoengineering.
Students will be able to analyse the possibilities and implications of creating more durable and
sustainable goods.
Students will understand the principles of ecologically sustainable technology and biomimicry.
Core Readings (read all of the following)
International Institute for Sustainable Development (2013). Cleaner production:
https://www.iisd.org/business/tools/bt_cp.aspx [Short, one-page overview]
Mol, A. and D. Sonnenfeld (2000). Ecological modernisation around the world: An introduction. Environmental
Politics 9(1): 1-14.
Corner, A., & Pidgeon, N. (2010). Geoengineering the climate: The social and ethical implications. Environment:
Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 52(1), 24-37. doi: 10.1080/00139150903479563
The Biomimicry Toolbox: https://toolbox.biomimicry.org/ (Read the introduction and the four core concepts)
Hathaway, M. (2015). The practical wisdom of permaculture: An anthropoharmonic phronesis for an ecological
epoch. Environmental Ethics, 37(4), 445-463.
Optional Readings
Foster, J. (2012). The planetary rift and the new human exemptionalism: A political-economic critique of ecological
modernization theory. Organization & Environment, 25(3), 211-237. doi:10.1177/1086026612459964
Milanez, B., & Bührs, T. (2007). Marrying strands of ecological modernisation: A proposed framework.
Environmental Politics, 16(4), 565-583. doi:10.1080/09644010701419105
Thorpe, Beverley (1999). Citizen’s guide to clean production.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260399703_Citizen's_Guide_to_Clean_Production
McMahon, J. (2018). Chinese company says it will soon cross $100 battery threshold, slaying the gasoline car.
Forbes, December 4, 2018.
Gomez, Isabella (2018). Recycling isn’t going to stop plastic from destroying the Earth. Teen Vogue, December 20,
2018.
ENV222H1S-2019 Page 9
Butler, Sarah (2018). Is fast fashion giving way to the sustainable wardrobe? The Guardian, 29 December 2018.
Kopnina, Helen (2018). Circular economy and cradle to cradle in educational practice. Journal of Integrative
Environmental Sciences, 15:1, 119-134, DOI: 10.1080/1943815X.2018.1471724
Fourth Tutorial Set held Wednesday, March 6 (101-301) and Thursday, March 7 (401-801)
Week 8 (March 5): Market Solutions, Steady-State Economics, Bioregionalism, & Degrowth
Learning Outcomes
Students will gain a basic understanding of ecological economics including its critique of growth,
GDP, and hidden externalities.
Students will be able to analyse and assess the possibilities and limitations of market-based solutions
to ecological problems, particularly the use of carbon pricing mechanisms to re-internalise the costs
of carbon pollution.
Students will assess the advantages, limitations, and challenges of more radical economic
transformations including bioregionalism and economic degrowth.
Core Readings (read all of the following)
Redcliff, Michael (2010). The transition out of carbon dependence: The crisis of environment and markets. In M.
Redcliff and G. Woodgate (eds.), The international handbook of environmental sociology (2nd edition), pp. 121-
135. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.
Daly, Herman E. 2007). Ecological economics and sustainable development, selected essays by Herman Daly, pp. 9-
31. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.
Cato, Molly (2012). Visioning the bioregional economy. In The Bioregional Economy, pp. 21-39. London, UK:
Routeledge.
Martínez-Alier, Joan (2012). Environmental justice and economic degrowth: An alliance between two movements.
Capitalism Nature Socialism 23(1): 51-73.
Optional Readings
Falkner, Robert (2009). Chapter 1: Global firms in international environmental politics. In Business Power and
Conflict in International Environmental Politics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 3-15.
Eisner, M. (2007). Chapter 8: From greed to green. In Governing the Environment: The transformation of
environmental regulation, pp. 135-151. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Davidson, Eric A. (2000). Chapter 9. May We Live in Interesting Times. You Can’t Eat GNP: Economics as if
Ecology Mattered. Cambridge: Mass.: Perseus. pp. 185-216.
Ahmed, Nafeez (2018). This is how UN scientists are preparing for the end of capitalism. The Independent, 12
September 2018. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/long_reads/capitalism-un-scientists-preparing-end-
fossil-fuels-warning-demise-a8523856.html
World Bank Group. 2017. State and trends of carbon pricing. Executive Summary, p. 8-13.
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/29687/9781464812927.pdf
Goodman, M.K., and Boyd, E. (2011). A social life for carbon? Commodification, markets and care. Editorial. The
Geographical Journal, 177 (2), 102-109.
Hachadourian, Araz (2017). The 150-mile wardrobe: A solution for one of the world’s most polluting industries.
Yes! Magazine, December 19, 2017.
Week 9 (March 12): Governance, Policy Approaches, Sustainability, and Regeneration
Learning Outcomes
Students will gain a clearer understanding of the history of international environmental policy-
making, including the challenges of creating effective, binding agreements.
Students will be able to explain how questions of ecological justice and global economics affect
international environmental negotiations.
Students will be able to explain and critique the concept of sustainable development, understand
essential elements of sustainability, and explain the concept of regeneration and what it might entail
in practice.
ENV222H1S-2019 Page 10
Core Readings (read all of the following)
Meadowcroft, James (2012). Greening the state? In Paul F. Steinberg and Stacy D. VanDeveer, Comparative
Environmental Politics: Theory, Practice and Prospects. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. pp. 63-87.
Munsch, Mathieu (2017). As the climate clock strikes midnight, its time to look to the morning. In Bright Green:
Independent media for a radical, democratic, green movement. http://bright-green.org/2017/07/22/as-the-
climate-clock-is-strikes-midnight-its-time-to-look-to-the-morning/
Wahl, D. C. (2016). Designing regenerative cultures. pp. 15-18, 39-49, 251-254. Axminster, UK: Triarchy Press.
Optional Readings
Vogler, John (2008). Environmental issues. In John Baylis, Steve Smith, and Patricia Owens (eds.) The
Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, pp. 350-368. Oxford, UK: Oxford
University Press.
Levin, K., Cashore, B., Bernstein, S., & Auld, G. (2012). Overcoming the tragedy of super wicked problems:
constraining our future selves to ameliorate global climate change. Policy sciences, 45(2), 123-152. doi:
10.1007/s11077-012-9151-0
Cobb, J. B. (2012). Sustainable urbanization. In In I. Leman-Stefanovic & S. B. Scharper (Eds.), The natural city:
Re-envisioning the built environment (pp. 191-202). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.
Klein, Naomi (2018). Capitalism killed our climate momentum, not “human nature.” The Intercept, August 3,
2018. https://theintercept.com/2018/08/03/climate-change-new-york-times-magazine/
TED Talk by Christiana Figueres Executive secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC), who led the recent COP 21 climate talks in Paris.
https://www.ted.com/talks/christiana_figueres_the_inside_story_of_the_paris_climate_agreement
Orr, D. W. (1993). Love it or lose it: The coming biophilia revolution. In S. R. Kellert & E. O. Wilson (Eds.), The
biophilia hypothesis (pp. 415-440). Washington, DC: Island Press.
Week 10 (March 19): Individual and Collective Action
Learning Outcomes
Students will gain an understanding of both the importance and limitations of individual behaviour
changes to promote sustainability as well as some of the challenges of motivating such change.
Students will be able to analyse the challenges and potential effectiveness of collective action to
promote sustainability at a community and social movement level.
Students will be able to explain some of the goals and strategies employed by a number of pro-
environmental social movements such as 350.org, Project Drawdown, and Extinction Rebellion.
Core Readings (read all of the following)
Hinton, E. & Goodman, M. (2010). Sustainable consumption: Developments, considerations and new directions. In
M. Redcliff and G. Woodgate (eds.), The international handbook of environmental sociology (2nd edition), pp.
245-261. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.
Harper, Charles L. (2001). Chapter 9: Environmentalism: Ideology, action and movements. Environment and
Society: Human Perspectives on Environmental Issues, pp. 345-384. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Westley, F., Patton, M. Q., & Zimmerman, B. (2007). Getting to maybe: How the world is changed, pp. 19-53.
Toronto, ON: Vintage Canada.
Project Drawdown: https://www.drawdown.org/solutions (spend some time browsing the different solutions in the
different sectors look towards the bottom of the page for the links)
Optional Readings
Elgin, Duane 2006). Voluntary simplicity and the new global challenge. In N. Haenn and R. Wilk (eds.) The
environment in anthropology: A reader in ecology, culture, and sustainable living, pp. 458-468. New York, NY:
NYU Press.
Tallullah, Tegan (2018). Why we can’t rely on individuals to fix climate change. The Climate Lemon
https://theclimatelemon.com/individual-collective-fixing-climate-change/
Hackel, L. & Sparkman, G. (2018). Reducing your carbon footprint still matters. Slate, October 26, 2018.
https://slate.com/technology/2018/10/carbon-footprint-climate-change-personal-action-collective-action.html
ENV222H1S-2019 Page 11
Fifth Tutorial Set held Wednesday, March 20 (101-301) and Thursday, March 21 (401-801)
Second Online Quiz Opens Friday, March 22 at 9 AM and Closes Monday, Mar. 25 at 9 AM
Week 11 (March 26): Shifting Values & Worldviews, Creating Living Models of Regeneration
Learning Outcomes
Students will be able to explain some theories of social change and be able to classify different kinds
of transformative action applying these frameworks.
Students will gain a preliminary understanding for both the importance and challenges of shifting
values and worldviews.
Students will become familiar with and analyse a variety of initiatives seeking to create living models
of regenerative sustainability.
Core Readings (read all of the following)
Homer-Dixon, T. (2006). Chapter 9: Cycles within cycles. The upside of down: Catastrophe, creativity, and the
renewal of civilization, pp. 207-234. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Escobar, A. (2018). Chapter 5: Design for transitions. Designs for the pluriverse: Radical interdependence,
autonomy, and the making of worlds, pp. 137-164. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Quilley, S. (2012). Resilience through relocalization: Ecocultures of transition? Ecocultures Working Paper: 2012-1.
University of Essex, UK. URL: http://www.ecocultures.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Quilley-2012-1.pdf.
See also: Earlier articles on permaculture and bioregionalism.
Optional Readings
Marten, G. G. (2010). Chapter 4: Ecosystems and social systems as complex adaptive systems. Human ecology:
Basic concepts for sustainable development, pp. 42-59. London, UK: Routledge.
Meadows, D. H. (1999). Leverage points: Places to intervene in a system. Hartland, VT: The Sustainability
Institute.
Poland. B. et al (2018). The emergence of the transition movement in Canada: Success and impact through the
eyes of initiative leaders. Local Environment. https://doi.org/10.1080/13549839.2018.1555579
The Earth Charter Initiative: http://www.earthcharterinaction.org/content/
The Work that Reconnects Network: http://workthatreconnects.org/
Transition Towns: http://www.transitionnetwork.org/ or http://www.transitionus.org
Permaculture: http://www.permaculture.org.uk/ or http://permacultureprinciples.com/
Week 12 (April 2): Course Conclusion and Final Evaluation
(Please bring a computer to class if possible this day)
Learning Outcomes
Students will reflect on and integrate their leaning to date regarding the ecological crisis and its
causes as well as possible ways to address this crisis.
Final Tutorial Set held Wednesday, April 3 (101-301) and Thursday, April 4 (401-801)
Assignment #3 Due on Friday, April 5 at 11:59 PM
Final Exam date during Final Examination Period
Other Administrative Issues
Accessibility Needs and Services
The University of Toronto is committed to accessibility. The office of Accessibility Services at U of T
provides a range of services to students with disabilities to help them meet their educational objectives.
In conjunction with Accessibility Services, the course instructor and teaching assistant would like to
ensure the inclusion and full participation of everyone in the course. If you require accommodations for
a disability, or have any accessibility concerns about the course, the classroom or course materials, please
contact Accessibility Services as soon as possible: http://studentlife.utoronto.ca/accessibility. As well, if
there are things that we can do to facilitate your learning, or that we need to know as members of the
teaching team, please contact the instructor during the first few weeks of the course
ENV222H1S-2019 Page 12
Academic Integrity and Plagiarism
Academic integrity is fundamental to learning and scholarship at the University of Toronto. Participating
honestly, respectfully, responsibly, and fairly in this academic community ensures that the U of T degree
that you earn will be valued as a true indication of your individual academic achievement, and will
continue to receive the respect and recognition it deserves.
Familiarise yourself with the University of Torontos Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters
(http://www.governingcouncil.utoronto.ca/policies/behaveac.htm). It is the rule book for academic
behaviour at the U of T, and you are expected to know the rules. Potential offences include, but are not
limited to:
In papers and assignments:
Using someone elses ideas or words without appropriate acknowledgement.
Copying material word-for-word from a source (including lecture and study group notes) and not
placing the words within quotation marks.
Submitting your own work in more than one course without the permission of the instructor.
Making up sources or facts.
Including references to sources that you did not use.
Obtaining or providing unauthorised assistance on any assignment including
working in groups on assignments that are supposed to be individual work,
having someone rewrite or add material to your work while editing.
Lending your work to a classmate who submits it as his/her own without your permission.
On tests and exams:
Using or possessing any unauthorised aid, including a cell phone.
Looking at someone elses answers
Letting someone else look at your answers.
Misrepresenting your identity.
Submitting an altered test for re-grading.
Misrepresentation:
Falsifying or altering any documentation required by the University, including doctors notes.
Falsifying institutional documents or grades.
You can get further guidance on academic integrity at: www.artsci.utoronto.ca/osai/students
To remind you of these expectations, and help you avoid accidental offences, I will post an Academic
Integrity Checklist with each assignment on Blackboard. By submitting your assignment, you
confirm that you have read the checklist and affirm that its statements are true.
The University of Toronto treats cases of academic misconduct very seriously. All suspected cases of
academic dishonesty will be investigated following the procedures outlined in the Code. The consequences
for academic misconduct can be severe, including a failure in the course and a notation on your transcript.
If you have any questions about what is or is not permitted in this course, please do not hesitate to contact
me. If you have questions about appropriate research and citation methods, seek out additional
information from me, or from other available campus resources like the U of T Writing Website. If you
are experiencing personal challenges that are having an impact on your academic work, please speak to
me or seek the advice of your college registrar.
University of Toronto Writing Centres
Students having difficulty with writing skills, or those who would simply like to improve their ability,
are encouraged to visit the writing centre affiliated with their college at U of T. The writing centres
offer free individual tutoring, group workshops, and other resources. For more information, see the U of
T website (http://students.utoronto.ca/Academic_Resources/Writing_Centres.htm).

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