AST201H1

Stars and Galaxies

University of Toronto St. George

What we know about the properties and life cycles of stars, of galaxies, and of the Universe itself – and how we know it. How astronomers develop methods for understanding phenomena that span such vast ranges in distance and time. This course is intended for students with no science or engineering background.
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Bryan Gaensler, C. Barth Netterfield, Ilana MacDonald

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AST201H1 Lecture 12: AST 201 - lecture 12
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find more resources at oneclass.com AST 201 LECTURE 12 Thermal Radiation Rule #1 = Hotter is brighter if it is the same size Rule #2: Temperature affects the colour. If a star is bluer than it is hotter, if it is...

Astronomy & Astrophysics
AST201H1
Bryan Gaensler, C. Barth Netterfield, Ilana MacDonald
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Astronomy & Astrophysics
AST201H1
Bryan Gaensler, C. Barth Netterfield, Ilana MacDonald

AST201H1 Syllabus for Bryan Gaensler, C. Barth Netterfield, Ilana MacDonald — Winter 2019

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WE WANT TO HEAR FROM YOU
This course is taught by a team of more than 30 people. That means there are lots of
people you can turn to for help. To help us help you, please direct your questions as follows:
1. Please direct all non-private inquiries to the discussion boards on Quercus.
2. Private questions must be sent to ast201@astro.utoronto.ca . Inquiries sent to
other addresses, including the individual addresses or Quercus mailboxes of
instructors and TAs, will not receive replies .
3. Inquiries must be sent from a utoronto.ca email address. Inquiries sent from other
addresses will not receive replies.
4. Detailed questions requiring a lot of discussion are best dealt with during office
hours.
Example public questions: Post on the discussion boards
I need a little more explanation about topic X. Can you help?
Where do I write the midterm?
Will topic X be on the exam? Can you explain topic X?
What was covered during the class I missed?
Example private questions: E-mail to ast201@astro.utoronto.ca
My posted midterm grade is wrong--can you fix it?
I am registered with Accessibility Services and wanted to notify you of the accommodations I
require...
Example questions for office hours:
Can you help me understand why I did poorly on the midterm?
How should I study for the final exam?
I’m confused about the following list of topics: __________
Astronomy 201 -- Stars and Galaxies -- Winter 2019
Prof. Bryan Gaensler & Prof. Barth Netterfield
Classes: Tu. & Th., 2-3 pm, Con. Hall
CourseDescriptionandPrerequisites 2
CourseLearningGoals 3
Email 3
CourseMaterials 3
TutorialsandPlanetariumShows 4
GradingScheme 4
Quercus/Canvas 4
ClickerQuizzes 5
Illnesses,Absences,andMissedWork 5
Assignments 6
TermProject&TurnItIn 7
ExaminableMaterial 7
GradeChecksandDisputes 7
ObservingNights 7
AcademicIntegrity 8
ConHallQuietAreas 9
Accessibility 10
CourseDescriptionandPrerequisites
AST 201 is one of two general-interest courses in astronomy taught at the University of
Toronto. This course deals with the universe beyond our solar system, including the lives
and deaths of stars, black holes, galaxies, the Big Bang, dark matter, and dark energy. The
complementary course, AST 101, deals with our solar system, newly-discovered planets in
other solar systems, and the search for life in the cosmos.
The course is largely
non-mathematical
, but there will be some math shown in the
classes. If you're uncomfortable with math, you should read the Study Guide (posted
on Quercus) to get a clear idea of what will be expected of you. This course is
designed for students with no science or engineering background.
Please make sure that you are eligible to take this course for credit. Check the most current
list of exclusions in the course calendar. If you are unsure whether you can take this course
for credit, please consult Andrew Apong ( admin@astro.utoronto.ca ) in the main astronomy
office.
CourseLearningGoals
Our hope is that you will see AST 201 as an opportunity to indulge your curiosity about the
universe you live in. You should enjoy taking this course. We will cover some essential
topics, but we will make every effort to leave time for questions, which are strongly
encouraged! Our overall goals in this course are:
to discover our place in the universe
discover what the universe is like and why it is like that
to develop our capacity to ask and answer important questions about science
to learn how to think critically about concepts in astronomy, physics, and space
science
Email
Please post all science questions, general inquiries, and any other material for which
privacy is not a concern to the discussion boards on Quercus. For efficiency, these types of
questions will not be answered by e-mail . For matters where privacy is a concern, please
e-mail:
ast201@astro.utoronto.ca
Note : We can only reply to emails sent from email addresses ending in utoronto.ca.
CourseMaterials
All of the following may be obtained through the university Bookstore.
Required Text: The Cosmic Perspective , 8
th
ed., by Bennett et al. (7
th
or 6
th
edition
is also acceptable)
We do not recommend the 5th edition or earlier, nor any of the “Essentials”
versions of the textbook. If you choose to use one of these editions, you will
have to be careful to make sure you are reading the right material.
An i>clicker+ (see Clicker Quizzes section below for details)
An access code for Mastering Astronomy. It comes with new copies of the book or,
if you bought a used book, you can buy the code separately from cashiers in the
UofT Bookstore in Koffler Centre. The code should cost about $25. If you’re buying a
code online and it costs more like $60, you’re buying the wrong thing.
TutorialsandPlanetariumShows
This course has mandatory weekly tutorials. Consult the “Term Schedule” on Quercus to
ensure that you go to the correct room each week. Tutorials start in the fourth week of
classes.
GradingScheme
Clicker quizzes in classes
8%
Clicker quizzes in tutorials
8%
Mastering Astronomy assignments (approx. 11 of these)
5%
Term Project Plan
3%
Term Project
9%
Midterm test
22% or 32%
Final exam
45% or 35%
If your midterm grade is higher than your grade on the final exam, your midterm will count
for 32% of your final grade and the exam for 35%. Otherwise, the midterm will count for
22% and the final for 45%.
We will automatically disregard the following:
Up to TWO missed assignment marks
Up to TWO missed tutorial quizzes
Up to FOUR missed class clicker quizzes
Quercus/Canvas
All students are responsible for daily monitoring of the course Quercus page at:
q.utoronto.ca
All important announcements will be posted on Quercus. It is your responsibility to check
for them. Class notes and grades will also be posted on Quercus. If you can't access the
Quercus page for this course, please refer to these troubleshooting instructions:
https://q.utoronto.ca/courses/46670/pages/student-quercus-guide
ClickerQuizzes
Clicker quizzes will be administered several times in each class and tutorial. These are
open-book exercises designed to help you test your understanding as you learn and
improve your retention. They help keep you engaged in class and help you identify your
areas of weakness so that you can focus your studying later. Clicker quizzes are not tests:
you are encouraged to discuss each quiz with your classmates and refer to your notes. To
make them less intimidating, you can earn two marks per quiz: one mark for clicking ANY
answer plus one mark if your answer is correct.
To earn marks, you must register your clicker. Click the “i>clicker registration” link in the
sidebar on this course’s Quercus page to get started.
Please note that the same manufacturer makes an internet-based polling system called
REEF , which you can use
at your own risk
for this course. In our experience, REEF does not
work very reliably in Con Hall, but if you would like to forgo the purchase of a clicker, this is
an alternative.
Please also note that, you will need to be careful to change your i>clicker frequency code
for each class and tutorial. The instructions on how to change the frequency code are
printed on the back of your clicker. All of our classes in Con Hall will use frequency code
AA’, but the code used in your tutorial will be different. Failure to change your frequency
code to the right one will result in the irretrievable loss of all marks for that session. IF
YOU ARE SEEING A RED LIGHT ON YOUR CLICKER WHEN YOU CLICK IN, YOUR MARKS
ARE NOT BEING RECORDED. Try changing your frequency to the one mentioned by your
TA and, if that doesn’t work, bring the problem to the attention of your instructor or TA
immediately.
CLICKING IN ON ANY CLICKER BUT YOUR OWN, EVEN ONCE , OR ASKING SOMEONE
TO CLICK IN ON YOUR CLICKER, EVEN ONCE , CONSTITUTES A SERIOUS ACADEMIC
OFFENCE. THE PENALTY FOR THIS OFFENCE MAY INCLUDE THE LOSS OF ALL
CLICKER MARKS IN BOTH CLASS AND TUTORIAL FOR THE ENTIRE TERM.
Illnesses,Absences,andMissedWork
What did you miss?
1. Some clicker quizzes: See the grading scheme--we already disregard up to four
missed classes and two missed tutorials. We will only make further allowances for
missed clicker quizzes if you missed quizzes in more than four lectures or more
than two tutorials and you have appropriate documentation for every missed
lecture or tutorial.
2. The midterm: If you missed the midterm because of a documented illness or
religious observance and you able to write the make-up midterm on the date shown
in the term schedule, then you don’t need to let us know. Simply bring your
documentation with you to the make-up midterm and submit it to the invigilating
TA. If you missed the midterm for any other reason (e.g. you overslept, you forgot),
then you must contact us within 48 hours of the missed midterm, or you will receive
a grade of 0 for the midterm.
3. The make-up midterm: If you are unable to write the make-up midterm, you MUST
let us know within 48 hours of your return to campus. Submit appropriate
documentation covering your absences from BOTH the original and the make-up
midterm.
4. The final exam: Speak to your college registrar as soon as possible to arrange to
write a deferred exam. You DO NOT need to notify us.
5. Up to two assignments: Do nothing. Two missed assignments mark will be
disregarded automatically at the end of the semester.
6. Three or more assignments: Submit documentation covering your absence from
all missed assignments.
You DO NOT need to notify us or submit documentation for this policy to apply. It happens
automatically at the end of the semester .   
Please note that you if you miss more than the allotted number of clicker quizzes or
assignments, you must provide us with documentation for ALL of the missed work.
You must prove to us that you have missed additional work besides the allowed two
tutorials, four lectures, or two assignments for valid reasons (medical, etc.).
Ifyoufeelillpriortothemidtermandyouthinkyourillnesswillimpairyourtestperformance,
donotwritethemidterm.Undernocircumstanceswillstudentsbeallowedtorewrite
midterms.Youwillbeabletowritethemakeupmidtermifyouprovideuswith
documentationprovidethatyoumissedtheregularmidtermtestforavalidreason(doctor’s
note,letterfromyourregistrar,etc.). Absences for religious observances are permitted, but
three weeks’ advance notice is usually required.
Assignments
In this course, assignments will be completed online using the Mastering Astronomy web
site. Full instructions on how to purchase an access code and register for the system can
be found on the Quercus site for this course, in the 'Mastering Astronomy Assignments'
section. For this course, we use a special version of Mastering Astronomy available
to you only through the UofT Bookstore at a discounted price.
New assignments will be posted on Mondays, and will be due the following Monday at 9:00
a.m. Eastern Time. It is your responsibility to monitor the Mastering Astronomy web
site and ensure that you complete all of the assignments by their posted due dates.
Due dates for all assignments are noted on the Term Schedule.
Although you are free to discuss the assignments with each other in general terms, any
evidence of copying or other forms of academic dishonesty will be treated very seriously.
If we find that you have cheated on even one assignment, the penalty might include losing
all of the assignment marks for the entire semester.
TermProject&TurnItIn
FortheTermProject,youwillberequiredtosubmityourposter,podcast,orvideotranscript
throughTurnItIntohelpavoidplagiarism.YoumayoptoutofusingTurnItIn,butyoumustlet
usknowwithinthefirsttwoweeksofthecourse,i.e.,byFriday,January18th.Formore
informationonTermProjectsubmission,pleaseseetheTermProjectInstructionson
Quercus.
Normally, students will be required to submit their course essays to Turnitin.com for a review of
textual similarity and detection of possible plagiarism. In doing so, students will allow their
essays to be included as source documents in the Turnitin.com reference database, where they
will be used solely for the purpose of detecting plagiarism. The terms that apply to the
University’s use of the Turnitin.com service are described on the Turnitin.com web site.
ExaminableMaterial
The examinable materials for this course will consist of the materials covered in lectures.
The assigned readings are to improve your understanding, but are not examinable. The
final exam will be cumulative, with a slight emphasis on material covered in the second half
of the course.
GradeChecksandDisputes
You are encouraged to review your graded materials to ensure that they have been graded
accurately and the marks correctly transferred to Quercus. Once the final exam has been
written, we will consider all of your grades for all components of this course to be final.
ObservingNights
Over the course of the term, we will hold several optional observing sessions which will
afford students the opportunity to view highlights of the night sky through a telescope.
These will necessarily be scheduled as the weather permits. Announcements about these
sessions will be made in class, on Quercus, and by e-mail. No marks are awarded for
participating in these activities—they're just for fun. You may attend more than one
session, space permitting, and may bring one or two friends to each one.
Because these sessions will usually take place after dark on the downtown campus, all
students are strongly encouraged to take appropriate safety precautions when traveling to
and from the sessions. Dress warmly, as it can be cold and windy 15 floors up!
Observing sessions will sometimes be canceled due to inclement weather or cloud
cover. If an observing night has to be canceled, a note announcing the cancellation will be
posted on Quercus by 3 PM on the day of the observing night.
AcademicIntegrity
From Appendix D of the Academic Integrity Handbook
Academic integrity is one of the cornerstones of the University of Toronto. It is critically
important both to maintain our community which honours the values of honesty, trust,
respect, fairness, and responsibility and to protect you, the students within this
community, and the value of the degree towards which you are all working so diligently.
According to Section B of the University of Toronto's Code of Behaviour on Academic
Matters ( http://www.artsci.utoronto.ca/osai/students ) which all students are expected to
read and by which they are expected to abide, it is an offence for students to:
Use someone else's ideas or words in their own work without acknowledging
explicitly with a citation that those ideas/words are not their own with a citation
and quotation marks, i.e. to commit plagiarism. In particular, to copy answers to
short answer assignment problems from any website, the textbook, another
student, or any other source, even if reworded.
Click in on any i>clicker other than their own
Ask another student to click in on an i>clicker other than his or her own
Include false, misleading, or concocted citations in their work.
Obtain unauthorized assistance on any assignment
Provide unauthorized assistance to another student. This includes showing another
student your own work or clicking in on their i>clicker.
Submit their own work for credit in more than one course without the permission of
the instructor.
There are other offences covered under the Code, but these are the most common. You are
instructed to respect these rules and the values which they protect.
ConHallQuietAreas
Many students suffer from sensory hypersensitivities. For these students,
concentrating in a large room like Con Hall is very difficult. Some of them avoid class
because of the stress of trying to concentrate amid distractions. To help these and all
students achieve their maximum potential, we require all students to respect the following
seating rules.
Sections
Rules for these sections
A
Totally distraction-free--no talking, typing, eating, use of electronic devices,
chewing gum, or wearing of scents. Strive to be still and calm.
B-F
Silent areas--no talking except during clicker quizzes; respectful use of
electronic devices
G-M
Quiet areas--brief, necessary conversations only; respectful use of electronic
devices
Accessibility
The University of Toronto offers a wide variety of services to ensure that all students have
equal access to education. Most of these services are coordinated through Accessibility
Services. See:
http://www.studentlife.utoronto.ca/as

If you have (or develop) any kind of physical, mental, or emotional condition that might
interfere with your schoolwork, we strongly encourage you to register with Accessibility
Services as early as possible. Examples of such conditions include learning disabilities,
concussions, chronic health issues, mobility issues, low vision, anxiety, and depression.
Accessibility Services will assess your needs and work on your behalf to arrange
accommodations with your professors so that you can achieve at your optimum potential.

If you have a mobility issue that prevents you from going up or down stairs, please
let us know as early in the semester as possible. The planetarium, the observatory,
Prof. Geansler, and Dr. MacDonald’s offices are all accessible by stairs only. (Prof.
Netterfield’s office is in an accessible building.) We will happily arrange assistance or
alternatives for those who might have difficulty accessing these locations.
VERY IMPORTANT TO-DO ITEMS
1. Bring your i>clicker with you to every class starting in the second class.
2. Log into the course on Quercus. If you can't access the course and you have
registered recently, please wait up to 48 hours for your registration to take effect.
Your professors cannot speed this process along.
3. Register your i>clicker on this course’s Quercus page. Everyone must complete this
step, even if you've registered your clicker before.
4. Sign up for a tutorial section on ROSI if you have not already done so.
5. Make sure your e-mail address on ROSI is an @utoronto.ca address or you may
miss crucial e-mails.
6. Sign up for Mastering Astronomy following the instructions on the 'Assignment'
page of the course Quercus site.
7. Complete the assignments “Introduction to Mastering Astronomy” (not for marks)
and “Assignment 1” (for marks) on Mastering Astronomy.
8. Read the university's policies on academic honesty and integrity:
http://www.artsci.utoronto.ca/osai/students
9. Read the university's Code of Student Conduct:
http://www.governingcouncil.utoronto.ca/policies/studentc.htm
AST 201 Term Schedule, Winter 2019
You are required to read the indicated textbook sections before each class. Section numbers for the 6
th
, 7
th
, and 8
th
editions are
given. Some sections contain material that won’t be covered explicitly in class. You should read those parts, but you WILL NOT be
explicitly tested on them. The listed figures are those you should focus on in your studying, with the most important figures indicated in
bold . Use the stated learning goals to guide your studying.
This schedule is APPROXIMATE and open to change. Check often to ensure you are reading the most recent version.
If your tutorial section is scheduled to go to the planetarium during a given week, report to Astronomy Building room 79 (AB 79)
for your tutorial instead of going to your regular tutorial room . The Astronomy Building is at 50 St. George Street, just north of the
main UofT bookstore.
Tutorial
Location
& Week
Topics and Learning Goals
Readings and Key Figures
Week 1:
No tutorials
this week
A very big mystery: the Dark Universe
Explain what the Hubble eXtremely Deep Field
is, how it was produced, and what it tells us
about the overall makeup of the universe
Describe the overall composition of the
universe in terms of matter, energy, dark
matter, and dark energy
Identify one piece of evidence for the
existence of dark matter
Develop your willingness to ask “Why?” and
“How do we know?”
Get comfortable discussing science and
solving problems with your peers
Get to know at least one other person in the
class
Read through chapter
1, just to start thinking
about astronomy.
Space, time, and “spacetime”
Distinguish between velocity and acceleration
Translate descriptions of motion between the
reference frames of different observers, such
as a person on a moving train vs. a person on
the ground
Explain what it means for the speed of light to
be “invariant”
Use an example to show how the invariance
of the speed of light gives rise to time dilation,
using the example of the two observers on
and off the train
Explain how the invariance of the speed of
light binds space and time together into
“spacetime”
8
th
ed.
Sections S2.1-S2.4
Figures S2.1, S2.2 ,
S2.3-S2.9, S2.10, S2.11,
S2.13-S2.16, S2.19
7
th
ed.
Same as for 8
th
ed.
6
th
ed.
Sections S2.1-S2.4
Figures S2.1, S2.2, S2.3,
S2.4-S2.9, S2.10, S2.11,
S2.13-S2.16, S2.19
Note: As you read
chapters S2 and S3,
you might start to
wonder if you are
actually in a course
for 4
th
-year physics
majors.
Don’t panic
.
We’re going to go
through this material
slowly, conceptually,
and
non-mathematically.
We also won’t cover it
in as much detail as
the book does. 
Week 2:
Tutorial
sections
ending in 01
go to the
planetarium
for your
tutorials.
Tutorials
ending in 02
have NO
tutorials this
week
Planetarium shows and tutorials begin this week
Time Dilation and the Twin Paradox
Explain the concept of time dilation and give
real-world examples of its effects
Explain the Twin Paradox and its resolution
Same as for last class
Two ways to think about gravity
Name the four fundamental forces of
nature , rank them by relative strength, and
identify what role each one plays in the
universe
Describe how forces are related to
accelerations
Distinguish between Newtonian gravity and
Einstein’s general relativity
Explain the Equivalence Principle and describe
what it tells us about the nature of gravity
Describe how the presence of a mass deforms
spacetime
Describe gravity in terms of spacetime
curvature
8
th
ed.
Sections S3.1,S3.2 (only
the part called “What is
curved spacetime?”),
S3.3, S3.4
Figures S3.1, S3.2, S3.3,
S3.4 , S3.12, S3.13,
S3.15 , S3.18, S3.19,
S3.20 , S3.21
7
th
ed.
Same as for 8
th
ed.
6
th
ed.
Same as for 8
th
ed.,
except S3.21 (not
present)
Week 3:
Tutorial
sections
ending in 02
go to the
planetarium
for your
tutorials.
Tutorials
ending in 01
have NO
tutorials this
week.

Last day to enrol in courses with S section codes
*** Assignments #0 and #1 Due ***
Black Holes: Cosmic Vacuum Cleaners?
Define the term “escape speed” and explain
how it changes with the mass of a body and
the distance from that body
Describe what happens to bodies which
attempt to orbit with speeds above and below
the escape speed
Define the term “Schwarzschild radius” in
terms of the escape speed and the speed of
light.
Define the “event horizon” of a black hole
Explain why black holes are not “cosmic
vacuum cleaners”
8
th
ed.
Section 18.3
Figures 18.12, 18.14 ,
18.15
7
th
ed.
Same as for 8
th
ed.
6
th
ed.
Same as for 8
th
ed.
Observational evidence for black holes
Describe the observational evidence for the
existence of black holes, including the black
hole at the center of our galaxy
Draw a diagram to explain gravitational
lensing and relate it to observational
evidence for the existence of black holes
Distinguish between stellar-mass and
supermassive black holes
Describe what would happen to Earth if the
Sun was replaced by a 1 solar mass black hole
Estimate the physical size of black holes of
different masses (e.g. 1 solar mass, 25 solar
masses, 1 million solar masses)
8
th
ed.
Sections 18.3, 19.4
Figures 18.12, 18.14 ,
18.15, 19.20 , 19.21,
19.22
7
th
ed.
Sections 18.3, 19.4
Figures 18.12, 18.14 ,
18.15, 19.20, 19.21 ,
19.22
6
th
ed.
Same as for 7
th
ed.
Week 4:
Tutorials in
regular
rooms
Term Project Plans due on Quercus
*** Assignment #2 Due ***
The Sun: Part 1
Describe the general properties of the Sun in
comparison to the Earth: size, mass, distance
Describe the main features of the solar
spectrum: the underlying continuous or
blackbody part and the absorption lines
Describe atoms in terms of their constituent
particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons
Explain how light generated by the Sun is
absorbed to produce absorption lines
Explain how we can use absorption lines to
determine the chemical composition of the
Sun, or any celestial object
8
th
ed.
Sections 14.1, 5.1-5.4
Figures 14.2 , 14.3, 14.4, 5.3,
5.4, 5.5, 5.7 , 5.14, 5.16
7
th
ed.
Same as 8
th
ed.
6
th
ed.
Sections 14.1, 5.1-5.4
Figures 14.2 , 14.3, 5.3, 5.4,
5.5, 5.7 , 5.14, 5.16
Note: Most students find
chapter 5 a bit hard to digest.
We strongly encourage you to
read the whole thing so that
it forms a coherent whole but
we will pick and choose the
parts of it that we actually
use in class.
The Sun: Part 2
Explain how we can use the shape of a
celestial object’s blackbody curve to
determine its temperature
Explain why we don’t see green stars
Describe how the Sun produces energy
Define nuclear fusion and explain how
nuclear reactions are different from chemical
ones
List the main inputs and outputs of the p-p
chain
Explain why neutrinos can escape the Sun so
easily, focusing on their interactions via the
four fundamental forces

8
th
ed.
Sections 14.2, 5.1-5.4
Figures 14.6 , 14.7, 14.8 ,
14.9 , 14.10, 5.19 , 5.20
7
th
ed.
Same as 8
th
ed.
6
th
ed.
Sections 14.1, 14.2
Figures 14.5 , 14.6, 14.7,
14.8 , 14.9, 5.19 , 5.20
Note: Make sure you
really understand figure
5.19. It’s crucial for
understanding a lot of
what comes later!
Week 5:
Tutorials in
regular
rooms
*** Assignment #3 Due ***
Properties of nearby stars
Distinguish between a star’s apparent
brightness and its luminosity
Draw a diagram illustrating how to use the
parallax method to measure the distance to a
nearby star
Define the term light year and use it
correctly, distinguishing it clearly from
measures of time
Explain how the inverse square law of light
relates a star’s luminosity to its apparent
brightness
Explain how we can measure a star’s
luminosity
8
th
ed.
Section 15.1
Figures 15.1, 15.2, 15.3,
15.4
7
th
ed.
Same as for 8
th
ed.
6
th
ed.
Same as for 8
th
ed.
Spectral classification
Order stellar spectra according to the
strengths of their spectral lines
Identify the main physical property which
distinguishes stars of different spectral types
and describe how it gives rise to the patterns
of spectral line strengths
Come up with your own mnemonic for
remembering the sequence of stellar spectral
types
Given two stellar spectra, identify which star
is hotter
Discuss stellar masses in terms of the solar
mass unit
8
th
ed.
Sections 15.2
Figures (Optional: 15.7
and 15.8)
Table 15.1
7
th
ed.
Same as for 8
th
ed.
6
th
ed.
Same as for 8
th
ed.
Week 6:
Tutorials in
regular
rooms
*** Assignment #4 Due ***
Building the H-R diagram
Draw and label an H-R diagram , indicating
the physically meaningful ranges for stellar
surface temperatures and luminosities
Identify and draw the main sequence on the
H-R diagram and explain its physical origin
Describe the different types of stars found on
the main sequence, carefully distinguishing
what they have in common and what is
different about them
Describe and draw how the ages and sizes of
stars can be represented in an H-R diagram
8
th
ed.
Sections 15.2
Figures 15.1, 15.11,
15.12, 15.13
Table 15.2
7
th
ed.
Same as for 8
th
ed.
6
th
ed.
Same as for 8
th
ed.
Interpreting H-R diagrams
Identify and name patterns or groupings of stars
in the H-R diagram
Explain what a star’s luminosity class tells us
about a star
Distinguish between a star’s luminosity and
luminosity class
Given a star’s luminosity class and spectral class,
state or estimate its surface temperature,
main-sequence lifetime, luminosity, age, mass,
colour, likely end-state (not all factors can be
determined from all combinations of luminosity
class and spectral class)
Explain how and why a star’s main-sequence
lifetime is related to its mass
Explain why some stars live longer than others
and identify those types which live the longest
Estimate the age of a star cluster by examining the
H-R diagram of its members
8
th
ed.
Sections 15.2, 15.3
Figures 15.1, 15.11,
15.12, 15.13 , 15.16,
15.17, 15.18, 15.19,
15.20
7
th
ed.
Same as for 8
th
ed.
6
th
ed.
Same as for 8
th
ed.
Week 7:
NO
TUTORIALS
Reading Week (Feb. 18-22): No Classes This Week
*** Assignment #5 Due ***
Week 8:
Tutorials in
regular
rooms
*** Assignment #6 Due ***
The lifecycle of a 1 solar mass star
Describe in your own words the major stages in
the lifecycle of a 1 solar mass star
Explain how the chemical composition of the Sun
and its core have changed over the last 5 billion
years and will change over the next 5 billion years
Draw a cross-sectional diagram of the Sun at the
present day, at the end of its main-sequence
lifetime, and just before it becomes a red giant
Explain why hydrogen fusion will eventually end in
the Sun’s core
Explain why hydrogen shell burning eventually
begins in the Sun
Explain why stars tend to puff up and turn red
when they die
Describe the main steps in the Sun’s post
main-sequence evolution , both in your own
words and by drawing the steps on an H-R
diagram
Estimate the time taken for the various steps in
the above sequence
Describe what a white dwarf is and what it’s
made of
Explain why white dwarf stars don’t collapse
under their own gravity, concentrating on
electron degeneracy
Explain what a planetary nebula is and
distinguish it clearly from a planet
Compare and contrast a white dwarf with Earth,
in terms of size, density, temperature, and
chemical composition
8
th
ed.
Sections 17.1-17.3, 18.1
Figures 17.1, 17.3, 17.4,
17.5 , 17.6, 17.7 , 17.8 ,
17.9, 17.19 , 18.2
7
th
ed.
Same as for 8
th
ed.
6
th
ed.
Same as for 8
th
ed.
The lifecycle of a massive star
Distinguish between high-mass and low-mass
stars, explaining why there is a difference
Explain how the sequence of steps in the
evolution of a high-mass star differs from that
of a low-mass star, focusing on evolution in
the core of the star
Use a graph of the binding energy per
nucleon in atomic nuclei to predict whether
fission or fusion of that atom with another
will produce or consume energy
Use the nuclear binding energy graph to
describe why nuclear fusion in stars doesn’t
tend to produce elements heavier than iron
Draw an onion diagram of the interior of a
massive star just before it dies
Explain how a supernova explosion occurs
Compare the energy of a supernova to the
lifetime energy output of the Sun
8
th
ed.
Sections 17.3, 18.2
Figures 17.11, 17.12 ,
17.13, 17.14 , 17.17,
17.18, 17.19, 18.6, 18.7,
18.8, 18.9, two-page
spread on pages
578-579
7
th
ed.
Same as for 8
th
ed.,
except that the
two-page spread is on
pages 576-577
6
th
ed.
Same as for 8
th
ed.,
except that the
two-page spread is on
pages 580-581
Week 10:
Tutorials in
regular
rooms
*** Assignment #7 Due ***
Midterm during class time:
Check Quercus for room assignments
THE MIDTERM WILL COVER LECTURES 2 THROUGH 12.
The Afterlives of Massive Stars
Describe the basic characteristics of a neutron
star, such as its mass, density, and size
Compare the properties of neutron stars to
those of white dwarfs
Use a diagram to show how neutron stars and
pulsars are related
Describe and draw the main steps in the
star-gas-star cycle
Same as for previous
class
Explain the sense in which we are “star stuff”
Given a chemical element (e.g. hydrogen,
helium, carbon, iron, uranium) explain how
and where it was ultimately produced
Week 11:
Tutorials in
regular
rooms
*** Assignment #8 Due ***
Make-up midterm for those with medical notes or other documentation
excusing them from the original sitting of the midterm. See Quercus for
details.
Our home galaxy, the Milky Way
Describe the overall properties of the Milky
Way, including its size, mass, number of stars,
shape, and parts
Name the three major components of the
Milky Way: disk, bulge, and halo
Describe how stars move within each
component of our galaxy
Identify the approximate distance between
the Sun and the center of our galaxy
Describe the typical types of stars (e. g.
spectral class, age, etc.) found in the three
components of our galaxy
Describe what’s at the center of the Milky Way
Optional: Describe how the Milky Way formed
(time permitting)
8
th
ed.
Sections 19.1-19.4
Figures 19.1, 19.2, 19.3,
19.12, 19.16, 19.17,
19.18 (if we get to the
optional part), 19.20 ,
19.22
7
th
ed.
Sections 19.1-19.4
Figures 19.1, 19.2, 19.3,
19.12, 19.16, 19.17,
19.18 (if we get to the
optional part), 19.20,
19.21
6
th
ed.
Same as for 7
th
ed.
Dark Matter in Galaxies
Use Kepler’s Third Law to relate an object’s
orbital semi-major axis to its orbital period
Apply Kepler’s Third Law to predict how stars
at different places in the Milky Way should
orbit
Apply Kepler’s Third Law to predict what a
Keplerian rotation curve should look like
Describe how the rotation curves of galaxies
are measured
Compare the actual rotation curve of a typical
spiral galaxy to a Keplerian rotation curve
Explain the two possible explanations for the
discrepancy between observed galaxy
rotation curves and Keplerian rotation curves
Explain at least two totally independent lines
of evidence for the existence of dark matter:
galaxy rotation curves and gravitational
lensing
Explain the difference between the MACHO
and WIMP hypotheses for the nature of dark
matter
Explain the evidence against the MACHO
hypothesis and the evidence in favour of the
WIMP hypothesis
State the overall contents of the universe, in
terms of both dark matter and normal or
baryonic matter
8
th
ed.
Sections 23.1, 23.2
Figures 23.1, 23.2 , 23.3,
23.4 , 23.7, 23.8, 23.9, 23.11
7
th
ed.
Same as for 8
th
ed.
6
th
ed.
Sections 22.1, 22.2
Figures 22.1, 22.2 , 22.3,
22.4 , 22.7, 22.8, 22.9, 22.11
Note that the chapter
orders differ here. The 6th
edition presents dark
matter and then the Big
Bang. The 7
th
and 8
th
editions do the reverse. If
you are reading the 7
th
or
8
th
editions, feel free to
skip the parts about the
Big Bang until we come to
that topic later. This is
particularly relevant to
section 23.2 in the 7
th
and
8
th
editions.
Final Term Project due on Quercus
Week 12:
Tutorials in
regular
rooms
Last day to drop S section code courses.
Last day to add or remove a CR/NCR option in S section code courses.
*** Assignment #9 Due ***
Other galaxies
Describe the main features of the three main
types of galaxies: spiral, elliptical , and
irregular
Given a picture of a galaxy, classify it as one of
the above types
Explain how spiral galaxies and elliptical
galaxies are related
Describe the ultimate fate of our Milky Way
galaxy
Describe how galaxies are distributed on the
largest scales in the universe (i.e. in clusters
and superclusters )
8
th
ed.
Sections 20.1-20.3
Figures 20.1, 20.2, 20.3,
20.4, 20.6 , 20.7 , 20.8 , 20.14 ,
20.19, 20.21 , 20.23 , 20.25
7
th
ed.
Sections 20.1-20.3
Figures 20.1, 20.2, 20.3,
20.4, 20.6 , 20.7 , 20.8, 20.13,
20.18, 20.20, 20.22, 20.24
6
th
ed.
Sections 20.1-20.3
Figures 20.1, 20.2, 20.3,
20.4, 20.6 , 20.7 , 20.8, 20.12,
20.19, 20.21, 20.22 , 20.24
The three editions get quite
mixed up here, so it’s hard to
give separate readings for
this class and the next one.
It’s best to just read all of
chapter 20 in either edition.
Hubble’s Law and the expanding universe
Define the terms redshift and Doppler shift
and explain how they can be used to map out
the motions of galaxies in our universe
Describe the overall pattern of motion of
galaxies in the universe, known as Hubble’s
Law
Identify any galaxies which are exceptions to
Hubble’s Law and clearly explain why they are
exceptions
Same as for previous
class.
Explain how Hubble’s Law leads directly to the
idea of an expanding universe
Use a diagram to explain how observers in
different galaxies would all measure the same
version of Hubble’s Law
Explain how Hubble’s Law appears to indicate
that we are at the center of the universe, but
actually demonstrates that the universe has
no center
Week 13:
Tutorials in
regular
rooms
*** Assignment #10 Due ***
The Big Bang Model
Use Hubble’s Law to motivate the hypothesis
that the universe began with a Big Bang
Describe the main tenets of the Big Bang model
Explain how the Big Bang model naturally
predicts the existence of a cosmic microwave
background (CMB)
Distinguish a cosmological redshift from a
Doppler shift , identifying the cause of each
Explain at least two independent pieces of
evidence for the Big Bang model: Hubble’s Law,
the CMB, large scale structure, and
nucleosynthesis
Clearly distinguish between motion of galaxies
through space and the expansion of space itself
8
th
ed.
Section 22.1, 22.2
Figures 22.1, 22.4, 22.5,
22.7 , 22.9
7
th
ed.
Same as 8
th
ed.
6
th
ed.
Section 23.1, 23.2
Figures 23.1, 23.4, 23.5,
23.7 . 23.9
Please read the
Scientific American
article “Misconceptions
about the Big Bang” by
Lineweaver and Davis,
available at
http://goo.gl/ JC1EKN .
Dark Energy
Compare the expected linear version of
Hubble’s Law to the actual data an explain
how we know that the expansion of the
universe is accelerating
Clearly distinguish between the expansion of
spacetime and the acceleration of that
expansion
Explain how the acceleration of the expansion
of the universe implies the existence of dark
energy
8
th
ed.
Section 23.4
Figures 23.17, 23.18,
23.19, 23.20
7
th
ed.
Same as 8
th
ed.
6
th
ed.
Section 22.4
Figures 22.17 , 22.18,
22.19
Week 14:
No tutorials
*** Assignment #11 Due ***
The ultimate fate of the universe
Explain how the presence of mass in the
universe should affect the expansion of the
universe
Explain the role of the critical density of
matter in determining the fate of the universe
Distinguish the fates of universes whose
densities are below, equal to, and above the
critical density
Explain how the addition of dark energy to the
models affects the ultimate states of different
kinds of universes
Describe the ultimate end state of our
universe, making reference to the amounts of
matter, dark matter, and dark energy that it
contains
Same as for previous
class.
Problems with the Big Bang Model
Describe the flatness problem and the
horizon problem
Explain how both of these problems are
solved by the inflation model
*** Assignment #11 Due ***
8
th
ed.
Section 22.3
Figures 22.13, 22.14,
22.15, 22.16
7
th
ed.
Same as 8
th
ed.
6
th
ed.
Section 23.3
Figures 23.14, 23.15,
23.16, 23.17

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