BIO101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Water Cycle, Hydrosphere, Body Fluid

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It doesn"t, however, have any calorific value or nutritional value: water is in a liquid state at standard atmospheric temperature and pressure. The molecule in itself is electrically neutral but polar with negative and positive charges localized in different areas. H covalent bonds, and there are two lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen atom: the most stable arrangement of the atoms is the one where they are the farthest. The oxygen atom thus attracts the shared electrons towards itself: as a result, a partial negative charge is developed on the oxygen atom while the hydrogen atom develops a partial positive charge. In water, the formation of four hydrogen bonds results in an intermolecular tetrahedral structure forming an open structure and three-dimensional bonding network. In solid phase: the solid form of water is ice, which can exist in different crystalline forms depending on the conditions for the freezing of water.

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