According to huether& mccance (2017), asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition described by obstruction of irreversible airflows and hyperresponsiveness of the airways. Asthma exists throughout all ages and is growing in prevalence. In the united states, there are approximately 6. 8 million children with asthma and about 18. 7 million adults with asthma. Pathophysiology of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation. Asthma is defined by a process that involves inflammation of the airway, bronchospasm, and increased efficiency of mucous. In hypersensitive individuals, when the patient is subjected to an antigen, an acute asthma exacerbation begins, which then activates an innate and adaptive immune response. Exposure to the antigen causes the mast cells to degranulate, which then activates inflammatory agents including histamine, bradykinine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and interleukins. This reaction leads to airway restriction and airflow restriction due to mucosal edema, enhanced mucous development, and bronchospasm (huether & mccance, 2017).