Homework Help for Accounting (page 1814)

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PROBLEM 5-20 Various CVP Questions: Break-Even Point; Cost Structure; Target Sales [LO5-1, L05-3, LO5-4, L05-5, LO5-6, L05-8] Northwood Company manufactures basketballs. The company has a ball that sells for $25. At present, the ball is manufactured in a small plant that relies heavily on direct labor workers. Thus, variable expenses are high, totaling $15 per ball, of which 60% is direct labor cost. Last year, the company sold 30,000 of these balls, with the following results: Sales (30,000 balls) ...... Variable expenses ...... Contribution margin .... Fixed expenses .. Net operating income ..... $750,000 450,000 300,000 210,000 $ 90,000 Required: 1. Compute (a) the CM ratio and the break-even point in balls, and (b) the degree of operating leverage at last year's sales level. 2. Due to an increase in labor rates, the company estimates that variable expenses will increase by $3 per ball next year. If this change takes place and the selling price per ball remains con- stant at $25, what will be the new CM ratio and break-even point in balls? 3. Refer to the data in (2) above. If the expected change in variable expenses takes place, how many balls will have to be sold next year to earn the same net operating income, $90,000, as 5. last year? Refer again to the data in (2) above. The president feels that the company must raise the sell- ing price of its basketballs. If Northwood Company wants to maintain the same CM ratio as last year, what selling price per ball must it charge next year to cover the increased labor costs? Refer to the original data. The company is discussing the construction of a new, automated manufacturing plant. The new plant would slash variable expenses per ball by 40%, but it would cause fixed expenses per year to double. If the new plant is built, what would be the company's new CM ratio and new break-even point in balls? Refer to the data in (5) above. a. If the new plant is built, how many balls will have to be sold next year to earn the same net operating income, $90,000, as last year? b. Assume the new plant is built and that next year the company manufactures and sells 30,000 balls (the same number as sold last year). Prepare a contribution format income statement and compute the degree of operating leverage. c. If you were a member of top management, would you have been in favor of constructing the new plant? Explain. 6.
PROBLEM 14-9 Understanding a Statement of Cash Flows (L014-1, L014-2] Brock Company is a merchandiser that prepared the statement of cash flows and income statement provided below: Brock Company Statement of Cash Flows-Indirect Method $ 275 Operating Activities Net income ... Adjustments to convert net income to a cash basis: Depreciation ........ Increase in accounts receivable.... Decrease in inventory ........ Decrease in accounts payable .......... Decrease in accrued liabilities ........ Increase in income taxes payable ................ Gain on sale of equipment... Net cash provided by operating activities ........... boa Investing Activities Additions to property, plant, and equipment ......... Proceeds from sale of equipment .... Net cash used in investing activities .............. long & nô Financing Activities Issuance of bonds payable ..... Issuance of common stock ............ Cash dividends paid ......... Net cash provided by financing activities ........... Net increase in cash and cash equivalents .......... Beginning cash and cash equivalents ............ Ending cash and cash equivalents ............ 34 Brock Company Income Statement Net sales .......... Cost of goods sold ............. .............. Gross margin ................ ............ Selling and administrative expenses ............. Net operating income ........... Nonoperating items: Gain on sale of equipment .... Income before taxes ... Income taxes . . . . . . . . $5,200 2,980 2,220 1,801 419 423 Net income .......................... $ 275 Required: Assume that you have been asked to teach a workshop to the employees within Brock Compa- ny's Marketing Department. The purpose of your workshop is to explain how the statement of cash flows differs from the income statement. Your audience is expecting you to explain the logic underlying each number included in the statement of cash flows. Prepare a memo that explains the format of the statement of cash flows and the rationale for each number included in Brock's state- ment of cash flows.
CASE 2-27 Scattergraph Analysis: Selection of an Activity Base [LO2-5] Angora Wraps of Pendleton, Oregon, makes fine sweaters out of pure angora wool. The business is seasonal, with the largest demand during the fall, the winter, and Christmas holidays. The company must increase production each summer to meet estimated demand. The company has been analyzing its costs to determine which costs are fixed and variable for planning purposes. Below are data for the company's activity and direct labor costs over the last year. Thousands of Units Produced Number of Paid Days Direct Labor Cost Month January February .. March 75 April ..... May ..... $14,162 $12,994 $15,184 $15,038 $15,768 $15,330 $13,724 $14,162 $15,476 $15,476 June ..... 102 July ....... August ... September October ............. 136 138 132 November .... December ... Na $12,972 $14,074 o The number of workdays varies from month to month due to the number of weekdays, holi- days, and days of vacation in the month. The paid days include paid vacations in July) and paid holidays (in November and December). The number of units produced in a month varies depend- ing on demand and the number of workdays in the month. The company has eight workers who are classified as direct labor. Required: 1. Plot the direct labor cost and units produced on a scattergraph. (Place cost on the vertical axis and units produced on the horizontal axis.) 2. Plot the direct labor cost and number of paid days on a scattergraph. (Place cost on the vertical axis and the number of paid days on the horizontal axis.) 3. Which measure of activity-number of units produced or paid days—should be used as the activity base for explaining direct labor cost? Explain.

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