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1 Jun 2019

1) Look up the structures of the following molecules. For each carbon atom, indicate its oxidation state. Calculate the average oxidation state of the carbon atoms in each.

Glucose

Pyruvic acid

Citric acid

Oxaloacetic acid

Carbon dioxide

2) Consider the following hypothetical cell. Initially, the cell has an equal number of positive and negative charges (cations and anions) on either side of its plasma membrane (extracellular, intracellular). There are equal concentrations of Na+, K+, and Cl- on either side of the plasma membrane. Consider the effects of the following events, in sequence, upon the ion concentrations and charge distributions (membrane electrical potential).

A. NKA proteins are activated in the plasma membrane. How does this affect the ions and the membrane electrical properties?

B. A small number of K+ channels open in the plasma membrane. How does this affect the ions and the membrane electrical properties?

C. An even larger number of Na+ channels open in the plasma membrane.

D. The Na+ and K+ channels close. Cl- channels open.

3) Pancreatic juice contains approximately 150 mM Na+. How do these Na+ ions contribute to the absorption of amino acids and sugars? Explain how 100% of an amino acid can be absorbed from the small intestines. HINT: intestinal epithelial cells have NKA, numerous cotransporters (symporters) and facilitated diffusion proteins.

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Deanna Hettinger
Deanna HettingerLv2
3 Jun 2019

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