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1. When does differentiation begin in fruit fly (insects)?

a. Prior to fertilization

b. Just after fertilization, but before any cell divisions takeplace

c. Just after the first cell division

d. At the blastula stage

e. At the globular embryo stage

2. When does differentiation begin in frog (vertebrates)?

a. Prior to fertilization

b. Just after fertilization, but before any cell divisions takeplace

c. Just after the first cell division

d. At the blastula stage

e. At the globular embryo stage

3. When does differentiation begin in flowering plants?

a. Prior to fertilization

b. Just after fertilization, but before any cell divisions takeplace

c. Just after the first cell division

d. At the blastula stage

e. At the globular embryo stage

4. Which axis develops first in animals, anterior-posterior(A-P) or dorsal-ventral (D-V)?

a. A-P

b. D-V

c. They develop at the same time.

d. They are controlled by the same transcription factors at thesame time.

5. Which axis develops first in plants, anterior-posterior ordorsal-ventral?

a. A-P

b. D-V

c. They develop at the same time.

d. Plants only develop A-P, and with respect to gravity andlight.

6. Focusing in on A-P development in Drosophila, maternaltranscription factors produce

proteins that control axis development in what order?

a. bicoid and nanos proteins; caudal and hunchback proteins; gapand pair-rule

proteins

b. caudal and hunchback proteins; bicoid and nanos proteins; gapand pair-rule

proteins

c. gap and pair-rule proteins; bicoid and nanos proteins; caudaland hunchback

proteins

d. gap and pair-rule proteins; caudal and hunchback proteins;bicoid and nanos

proteins

7. What ultimately controls pattern formation in Drosophila?

a. Morphogen gradients and signaling molecules under maternalcontrol

b. Morphogen gradients and signaling molecules under embryoniccontrol

c. De-repressors and signaling molecules under maternalcontrol

d. De-repressors and signaling molecules under embryoniccontrol

PLANT STRUCTURE, CELLS, CELL WALLS, PLASMODESMATA

8. Which of the following cannot be found in leaves?

a. Xylem

b. Phloem

c. Mesophyll

d. Parenchyma

e. Apical meristem

9. What are intercalary meristems?

a. Meristems that develop between internodes in some plants

b. Meristems that develop primary meristematic tissues

c. Meristems that are responsible for secondary growth in woodyplants

d. Root meristems

10. Roots, shoots, and leaves all contain three basic tissuesystems. What are they?

a. Ground, structural, conductive

b. Ground, vascular, dermal

c. Vascular, dermal, structural

d. Conductive, transmissive, supportive

11. All growth in plants is due to

a. Cell division in the three basic tissue systems andsubsequent cell elongation

b. Cell division at meristems and subsequent cell elongation

c. Cell division as needed throughout the plant body, followedby cell elongation

d. Hormone-induced cell division throughout the plant body

12. Which plant cells are dead at maturity, although stillproviding some useful function?

a. Dermal

b. Ground

c. Xylem

d. Phloem

e. Lateral meristems

13. Which meristems are responsible for lateral growth (increasein girth)?

a. Apical meristem

b. Root meristem

c. Vascular and bark cambium

d. Intercalary meristem

14. Where are most guard cells generally located in vascularplants?

a. Stem dermal tissue

b. Root dermal tissue

c. Petiole dermal tissue

d. Undersides of leaves

e. Uppersides of leaves

15. How can you distinguish guard cells from non-guardcells?

a. They contain mitochondria

b. They contain chloroplasts

c. They do not have plasmodesmata

d. They have plasmodesmata

e. B and C

PINs, IAA, ACID GROWTH

16. What are PINs?

a. Plasma membrane transport inhibitors

b. Auxin efflux transporters for active transport across plasmamembranes

c. Growth regulators

d. Hormones

e. Membrane transport proteins for embryogenesis

17. What is IAA?

a. Cytokinen

b. Gibberellic acid

c. Florigen

d. Auxin

e. Abscissic acid

18. Which hormone can trigger cell wall expansion?

a. Cytokinen

b. Gibberellic acid

c. Florigen

d. Auxin

e. Abscissic acid

19. Which ion is used by plants to decrease pH and activateenzymes that break cress-bridges

between cellulose fibers for cell wall expansion?

a. Na

b. K

c. Cl

d. H

e. Mg

20. Where do the ions come from to cause acidification of thecell wall?

a. Apoplast

b. Cytoplasm

c. Chloroplasts

d. Mitochondria

e. Vacuole

PLANT EMBRYOGENESIS, SHOOT APICAL MERISTEM (SAM), ROOT APICALMERISTEM

(RAM)

21. The first cell division in a plant zygote isasymmetrical.

a. True

b. False

22. At what stage of embryogenesis do PIN proteins firstinfluence orientation of the root-shoot

axis?

a. First cell division

b. Second cell division

c. 8-cell stage

d. Globular stage

e. Heart-shaped stage

23. Which hormone most strongly affects cell division inembryos?

a. IAA

b. GA

c. Ethylene

d. AA

e. CK

24. How do the major tissue systems in plants become establishedin developing embryo?

a. Anticlinal cell divisions

b. Periclinal cell divisions

c. All of the above

d. None of the above

STEM/ROOT PRIMARY, SECONDARY GROWTH

25. Fifteen years ago, your parent hung a swing from the lowerbranch of a tree in your yard. It is at the exact same height as itwas then. Why isn

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Irving Heathcote
Irving HeathcoteLv2
28 Sep 2019
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