They maintain their salt balance by a process called osmoregulation. A freshwater fish’s body has a higher saline concentration than the water outside and their bodies are constantly working to keep the concentration stable and keep the salt from escaping. The salt and water inside the fish want to achieve salinity equilibrium with the fish’s environment, but the fish uses osmoregulation to keep a higher concentration of salt in the body. The process has several contributing factors: highly efficient kidney functioning that excretes water and reabsorbs salt quickly and also special cells in their gills that absorb salt from the surrounding water and preventing too much water from entering.
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