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The pentose phosphate pathway, an alternative to glycolysis, is used to catabolize five carbon sugars. One ATP molecule and 12 NADPH molecules are produced from one glucose molecule. Glycolysis is the most common pathway for the oxidation of glucose. Two pryuvic acid molecules are the end product. There is a net gain of two ATP molecules and two NADH molecules per molecule of glucose oxidized through glycolysis.

Pyruvic acid loses one carboxyl group, and CO2 is a byproduct, during the transition step. Two carbon acetyl groups are oxidized in the Krebs cycle. Electrons are picked up by NAD+ and FAD for the electron transport system.

5. How does aerobic and anaerobic respiration differ?

6. Hemophilus influenzae requires hemin (X factor) to synthesize cytochromes and NAD+(V factor) from other cells. For what part of cellular respiration are the X and V factors essential?

7. Suppose an individual has mitochondria that leak cytochromes, what effect might this dysfunction have on the ability of the cell to function? Why?


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Nelly Stracke
Nelly StrackeLv2
28 Sep 2019
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