Explain the unusual sex-determining system of eusocial insects like ants and bees. Why does this system favor the evolution of a non-reproductive worker caste? Why are workers all female? Why do workers sacrifice their own reproductive success to help the queen?

Explain why a queen bee produces equal numbers of sons and daughters, but workers favor a 3:1 ratio of daughters to sons among the queen’s offspring.

Under what conditions can behavior for reciprocal altruism (individuals helping each other) evolve between non-relatives? What does such a system depend upon?

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Jamar Ferry
Jamar FerryLv2
28 Sep 2019

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