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1) Which is NOT characteristic of metabolism during theabsorptive state?

a) oxidation of about 50% of the glucose absorbed from a typicalmeal

b) conversion of glucose to glycogen in hepatocytes

c) gluconeogenesis using amino acids

d) glucose not picked up by the liver is converted intotriglycerides.

e) deamination of absorbed amino acids which enteredhepatocytes.

2) In the Krebs cycle, an oxidation-reduction reaction is likelycoupled with a substrate-level phosphorylation. True or False?

3) Glycolysis is an example of oxidative phosphorylation. trueor false?

4)Which of the following statements is incorrect?

a)In the proximal convoluted tubule, sodium ions are reabsorbedthrough the apical membrane by the Na+ -glucosesymporters and Na+ /H+ antiporters

b) In the loop of Henle, Na+-K+-2Cl- Symporters reclaim sodium, potassiumand chloride from fluid in the tubule lumen.

c)In the distal convoluted tubule, sodium resorption is mainlyby osmosis

d) In the collecting duct, principle cells absorb sodium.

5) Which of the following might indicated abnormal kidneyfunction?

a)creatinine clearance less than 120-140 mL/min

b)serum creatinine less than 1.5 mg/dL (135 mmol/liter)

c) glucose in the urine

d) creatinine clearance less than 120-140 mL/min and serumcreatinine less than 1.5 mg/dL (135 mmol/liter) are bothcorrect

e)creatinine clearance less than 120-140 mL/min, serumcreatinine less than 1.5 mg/dL (135 mmol/liter), and glucose in theurine are all correct

6) ACE inhibitors can lower blood pressure because inhibitingACE

a) stops the secretion of renin

b) prevents the formation of angiotensin I

c) prevents the formation of angiotensin II

d)increases the secretion of aldosterone

e)prevents norepinephrine from binding alpha 1 receptors onblood vessels

7) Which of the following statements is TRUE?
1. Hydrogen ions are secreted by Na+/H+antiporters in the proximal tubules.
2. H+ATPases (proton pumps) in the collecting ductssecrete hydrogen ions.
3. Cl-/HCO3- antiporters help withhydrogen ion reabsorption.

8) Which of the following is mismatched?

a)Sodium ions � Level is controlled by aldosterone, antidiuretichormone, and atrial natriuretic.

b) Chloride ions � Level is controlled by chloride ion leakagechannels and antiporters.

c) Potassium ions � Level is controlled by aldosterone.

d) Bicarbonate ions � Level is controlled mainly by kidneys.

e) Calcium ions � Level is regulated by osmosis.

9) Which of the following statements is correct?

a) In the menstrual phase, follicle stimulating hormonestimulates development of secondary follicles in the ovaries andprostaglandins cause loss of the stratum functionalis.

b)In the preovulatory phase, secondary follicles start tosecrete estrogens and inhibin. One becomes a dominant follicle andsecretes estrogens and inhibin causing decreased FSH secretionleading to atresia of less developed follicles. In the uterus, theendometrium undergoes repair under the influence of estrogens.

c)In ovulation, release of luteinizing hormone causes release ofthe secondary oocyte.

d) In the postovulatory phase, progesterone and estrogens aresecreted by the corpus luteum promote thickening of the endometriumpreparing for implantation. If no pregnancy occurs, progesteroneand estrogen levels drop and menstruation occurs.

e) all of these statements are correct

10)The secretory phase of the uterine cycle is associatedwith

a)increased secretion of progesterone and formation of thecorpus albicans.

b)increased secretion of progesterone and formation of thecorpus luteum.

c) increased secretion of luteinizing hormone and rupture of themature follicle.

d)increased secretion of estrogen and maturation of thesecondary follicle

e) increased secretion of follicle stimulating hormone andovulation.

11) Filtered fluid leaving the glomerular capillariesIMMEDIATELY enters the

a) glormerulus

b) proximal convulted tubule

c) collecting duct

d) glomerular capsule

e) loop of henle

12)Which correctly associates structure with tissue type?

a)PCT: simple cuboidal epithelium consisting of principle cellsand intercalated cells

b)descending limb and thin ascending limb of nephron loop:simple squamous epithelial cells

c) thick ascending limb of nephron loop: simple cuboidalepithelial cells with prominent brush borders of microvilli

d) DCT: simple cuboidal to low columnar epithelial cells

e) collecting duct: stratified cuboidal epithelial cells

13) Regulation of the volume and osmolarity of body fluidsoccurs first in the

a) proximal convoluted tubules.

b) distal convoluted tubules.

c) loop of Henle.

d) glomerular capsule.

e) collecting ducts.

14) Which is NOT True about podocytes?

a) their pedicels form filtration slits

b) they make up the parietal layer of the glomerular capsule

c) they are modified simple squamous epithelial cells

d)all of these choices statements about podocytes are true

15) In the process of forming concentrated urine, symporters inthe loop of Henle cause sodium ions and chloride ions to build upin the renal medulla helping to form the osmotic gradient. ADHincreases reabsorption of water by principal cells in thecollecting ducts.

True or False?

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Jean Keeling
Jean KeelingLv2
29 Sep 2019
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