30 Jul 2018

1. An individual can become sick from his/her own commensal microbes. Which scenario is NOT a plausible explanation of how this can occur?

a. weakened immune system

b. decreased microbial diversity

c. increased microbial diversity

d. damaged tissue

2. Which of the following is NOT an example of antigenic variation?

a. Serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae differ based on the structure of the polysaccharide capsule

b. Cholera toxin (Ctx) produced by the Vibrio cholerae bacterium

c. Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSGs) on the surface of Trypanosoma brucei (African Sleeping Sickness)

d. Antigenic drift of the hemagglutinin (HA) on the surface of the influenza A virus.

3. During certain viral infections, viral replication leads to alterations in the binding sites on the host tissue that create a more favorable environment for bacterial colonization. Which answer choice best describes the feature that allows bacterial growth for this example?

a. horizontal gene transfer

b. antigenic variation

c. emergence of drug resistance

d. enhanced pathogen attachment to host cells

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Jarrod Robel
Jarrod RobelLv2
1 Aug 2018
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