Vapor-pressure lowering is a colligative property, as are freezing-point depression and boiling-point elevation. What is a colligative property? Why is the freezing point depressed for a solution as compared to the pure solvent? Why is the boiling point elevated for a solution as compared to the pure solvent? Explain how to calculate *∆T* for a freezing-point depression problem or a boiling-point elevation problem. Of the solvents, which would have the largest freezing-point depression for a 0.50 molal solution? Which would have the smallest boiling-point elevation for a 0.50 molal solution? A common application of freezing-point depression and boiling-point elevation experiments is to provide a means to calculate the molar mass of a nonvolatile solute. What data are needed to calculate the molar mass of a nonvolatile solute? Explain how you would manipulate these data to calculate the molar mass of the nonvolatile solute.

Vapor-pressure lowering is a colligative property, as are freezing-point depression and boiling-point elevation. What is a colligative property? Why is the freezing point depressed for a solution as compared to the pure solvent? Why is the boiling point elevated for a solution as compared to the pure solvent? Explain how to calculate *∆T* for a freezing-point depression problem or a boiling-point elevation problem. Of the solvents, which would have the largest freezing-point depression for a 0.50 molal solution? Which would have the smallest boiling-point elevation for a 0.50 molal solution? A common application of freezing-point depression and boiling-point elevation experiments is to provide a means to calculate the molar mass of a nonvolatile solute. What data are needed to calculate the molar mass of a nonvolatile solute? Explain how you would manipulate these data to calculate the molar mass of the nonvolatile solute.