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# Q8. To arrive at a logical determination of a firm's optimum output, economists assume that the firm seeks to a. maximize output b. minimize cost c. maximize profit or minimize loss d. maximize price Q9. So long as marginal cost is rising, average variable cost must rise. a. true b. false Q10. As output increases, marginal cost increases, reaches a maximum, and then falls. a. true b. false Q11. Which of the following is the best example of variable cost? a. depreciation on a building b. property taxes c. wages d. rent paid for one's building Q12. If the AVC is \$12, the AFC is \$4, the AR is \$20, and output is 6,000 units, the total profit is a. \$72,000 b. \$48,000 c. \$24,000 d. negative \$96,000 Q13. Under perfect competition, if a firm is suffering a loss, a. MR exceeds ATC b. AR equals AVC c. AR equals ATC d. AR is less than ATC Q14. Elaine's firm is in a perfectly competitive industry. Why doesn't Elaine try to sell more of her product by lowering its price below the market price? a. her demand curve is not elastic b. doing so would be considered unethical price chiseling c. her competitors would not allow it d. she can sell all she wants at the market price Q15. In the long run, perfect competition results in firms producing a. at the minimum point of their long-run average cost curves, which indicates allocative efficiency b. where price equals marginal cost, which indicates economic efficiency c. where price equals marginal cost, which indicates the optimal scale of operation d. at the minimum point of their long-run average cost curves, which indicates economic efficiency Q16. On a graph of average cost curves, the space between ATC and AVC represents AFC. a. true b. false Q18. If MC equals MR at a point greater than ATC, the perfectly competitive firm will a. sustain a loss b. shut down c. make an economic profit d. expand output Q19. Since all producers have the same average revenue under conditions of perfect competition, they all have the same profits in the short run. a. true b. false Q20. If the entry of new firms in a perfectly competitive industry substantially increases the market demand for resources, a. this reduces the market price of resources b. this raises the market price of resources c. the market price of resources does not change d. this lowers the ATC curves of individual firms Q22. Under conditions of perfect competition, profits exist whenever AR is above AVC at equilibrium output. a. true b. false Q23. Under perfect competition, market price is determined by market demand and supply. a. true b. false Q24. If one firm in a perfectly competitive industry is somehow able to produce at a lower cost than competing firms in the short run, a. the competing firms will adopt similar production techniques in the long run b. the more efficient firm will earn higher profits than the competing firms in the long run c. the competing firms will earn higher profits than the more efficient firm in the short run d. the competing firms will go out of business in the long run 