40. Zack and his mom are baking cookies together for the first time. The first time the oven timer goes off, Zack shows no particular response. Then Zack gets to eat one of the cookies from the cookie tray that his mom pulls out of the oven, causing his mouth to water. From then on, every time Zack hears the oven timer, Zack's mouth begins to water. This is best described as A) operant conditioning, with the sound of the oven timer as the negative reinforcer B) operant conditioning, with mouth watering as the negative reinforcer C) classical conditioning, with mouth watering as the conditioned stimulus D) classical conditioning, with the sound of the oven timer as the unconditioned stimulus E) classical conditioning, with the sound of the oven timer as the conditioned stimulus
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10. Mr. Inwood is a retired business man. He finds that his thinking pattern has changed significantly from when he was in his early thirties. According to Cattell, Mr. Inwood's thinking has progressed from using _intelligence to depending more on intelligence A) the g factor, s factor B) fluid, crystallized C) verbal, performance D) non-verbal, verbal E) crystallized, fluid
31. Dr. Forsyth is assessing the cognitive functioning of an elderly patient who has recently suffered brain damage as a result of a stroke. If this patient has pronounced difficulties with both impulse control and planning behavior and has also experienced changes in personality, which area of the brain was most likely damaged by the stroke? A) the parietal lobe B) the temporal lobe C) the occipital lobe D) the frontal lobe E) the limbic system
28. A father believes that certain behaviours are more appropriate for boys than for girls. His wife has heard him share these beliefs and she wonders whether they are partly responsible for the fact that he relates differently to his son, with whom he tends to use more verbal and physical prohibition than he does with his daughter. In this example, the father's beliefs would be examples of , while the fact that he treats his children differently depending on their gender demonstrates the concept of A) gender identities, gender constancies B) sex-role stereotypes, gender preferences C) sex-role stereotypes; sex typing D) gender identities, sex typing E) gender identities, gender behaviour
3. Professor Abel views the causes of schizophrenia as strictly biological, while Professor Worth sees the causes as completely environmental. Both are wrong. Why? A) the causes of abnormal behaviour are best described at the psychological level B) the causes of abnormal behaviour are best described in terms of psychodynamic principles C) interaction must be considered—both levels are likely involved and each influence the other D) there are no known explanations for schizophrenia. E) B & D are correct
5a) Every time john is in the shower and his next door neighbor flushes the toilet, the water in the shower gets cold so John jumps back. However, every time before johns neighbor flashes the toilet he grunts, and so John jumps whenever he hears him grunts. Use operant conditioning to explain why this is so, make sure to use the right terms when explaining. b) Stella goes to watch the weight lifting championship. When lifting the weights contenders scream and this causes Stella to move back in her sit. Briefly explain why these screams cause Stella to move back in her sit
20. Consider the following distribution: 5,3,1,2,4,3,3. Which of the following statements are true? A) the mean is greater than the mode B) the range is less than the median C) the median is less than the mode D) mean, median, and mode are equal E) mean and mode are equal, but the median is a lower number
17. A psychologist is studying the effects of orange juice on the prevention of colds. She has one group drink a glass of orange juice every day for the month of December. A second group drinks a glass of orange juice once a week during December, while a third group is not given any orange juice at all during this time period. Previous medical histories were obtained for all the participants. In January, she records how many colds each participant gets over the entire month. In this study, the independent variable is A) the severity of the colds in January B) the number of colds each participant got in January C) the prior medical histories D) drinking orange juice every day E) the amount of orange juice consumed
If a neuron has a charge of -85 mv, which of the following is most likely true? A) the neuron is depolarized and in its resting potential phase B) the neuron is depolarized and at its action potential threshold C) the neuron is hyperpolarized and is in its refractory period D the neuron is hyperpolarized and in its action potential phase E) the neuron is polarized and in its resting potential phase
32. Which of the following were mentioned in the text as limitations or criticisms of Kubler- Ross's stages of coping? A) some people may move back and forth between stages B) some people may not experience all the stages C) some people may look forward to death D) some people may change their behaviour because of prior awareness of the stages E) A, B and C were mentioned as a limitation or criticism
19. Which of the following was discussed in the text as a disadvantage of the case study method of research? A) case studies are very vulnerable to demand characteristics B) case studies are not a good way to investigate rare or unusual behaviour C) case studies are not a good way to establish cause-effect relationships D) case studies give results that can be easily generalized to other people E) case studies are an effective way to investigate rare or unusual behaviour
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