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University of Toronto St. George

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UTSGRSM341H1leeWinter

RSM341H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Frequentist Probability, Sample Space

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11 Feb
0
Early investigations motivated by card games, parlor games. Intuitive probabilities come from a primitive procedure: a. b. c. Probabilities that are no
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UTSGRSM318H1kanWinter

RSM318H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Tikhonov Regularization, Function Approximation, Kernel Method

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9 Feb
0
Goal is to use some inputs to predict values of outputs. Can be quantitative output (regression) or qualitative output (classification) In machine lear
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UTSGRSM412H1khalegheiWinter

RSM412H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Linear Regression, Feature Engineering, Step Function

OC11269972 Page
9 Feb
0
Need to scale parameters or else results will be overfitted. Many test statistics (t-tests, confidence intervals) that help interpretation. For qualita
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UTSGRSM412H1khalegheiWinter

RSM412H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Logistic Regression, Linear Regression, Predictive Power

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9 Feb
0
Classification models have qualitative target (categories: y is not normally distributed, useful for yes/no questions, some classification problems are
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UTSGRSM341H1leeWinter

RSM341H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Ordinal Utility, Well-Order, Choice Function

OC11269972 Page
9 Feb
0
Assume decision maker always chooses options that they like at least as much as every other option on the menu. Decision maker"s preferences are define
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UTSGRSM318H1kanWinter

RSM318H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Simple Linear Regression, Linear Regression, Standard Deviation

OC11269974 Page
9 Feb
0
Is there a relationship between dependent and independent variable. How accurately can we predict y given x. How much does each x contribute to y. Need
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UTSGRSM318H1kanWinter

RSM318H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Stepwise Regression, Overfitting, Simple Linear Regression

OC11269973 Page
9 Feb
0
If true relationship is linear, least squares has low bias. If n is much larger than p, least squares tends to have low variance. If n not much larger
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UTSGRSM318H1kanWinter

RSM318H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Unsupervised Learning, Supervised Learning, Data Mining

OC11269972 Page
3 Feb 2020
0
Historical average = average historical expected return from first observation to most recent observation. Will run a regression using first 240 observ
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UTSGRSM318H1kanWinter

RSM318H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Search Algorithm, Gradient Descent, Categorical Variable

OC11269972 Page
1 Feb 2020
0
Target y is being predicted from single feature x. Plot y as function of a and bj where in m+1 dimensions. Gradient descent algorithm: iterative search
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UTSGRSM341H1leeWinter

RSM341H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Probability Axioms, Probability Measure, Sample Space

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26 Jan 2020
0
January 24, 2020: model-based decision making = choosing an available option using models, each model is a collection of conceivable realities, model i
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UTSGRSM412H1khalegheiWinter

RSM412H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Generalized Linear Model, Central Limit Theorem, Polynomial Regression

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26 Jan 2020
0
There is significant overlap between statistical learning and machine learning. Machine learning can be grouped into supervised and unsupervised. For d
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UTSGRSM412H1khalegheiWinter

RSM412H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Supervised Learning, Dependent And Independent Variables, Statistical Hypothesis Testing

OC11269973 Page
26 Jan 2020
0
Both input and desired output data are provided. Training dataset is used to train the machine. Machine is trained to classify something into some clas
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UTSGRSM318H1kanWinter

RSM318H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Survivorship Bias, Yield Spread, Expected Return

OC11269973 Page
26 Jan 2020
0
However, some features of stock return data means we may see predictability in returns based on the available data. May see positive autocorrelation in
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UTSGRSM318H1kanWinter

RSM318H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: George W. Bush, Normality Test, Independent And Identically Distributed Random Variables

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26 Jan 2020
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UTSGGGR314H1Danny HarveyWinter

GGR314H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Ozone Depletion, Sea Level Rise, Heavy Metals

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21 Jan 2020
0
Fixing global warming will fix many other problems. Cooling of stratosphere by increased co2 creates conditions that allow for ozone depletion. Will pe
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UTSGRSM318H1kanWinter

RSM318H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1,2: Machine Learning, Unsupervised Learning, Labeled Data

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20 Jan 2020
0
Is the creation of intelligence by learning from large volumes of data. Either predicting variable that can take a continuum if values, or models used
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UTSGRSM318H1kanWinter

RSM318H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1,2,10: Unsupervised Learning, Dependent And Independent Variables, Hierarchical Clustering

OC11269973 Page
20 Jan 2020
0
Output variable: typically denoted with y f represents systematic information that x provides about y is independent of x and has mean zero. Some error
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UTSGRSM318H1kanWinter

RSM318H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Risk-Free Interest Rate, Implied Volatility, Central Moment

OC11269973 Page
20 Jan 2020
0
Lower bound of -1 is problematic if assuming normal distribution. Max loss is 100% but there is no upper bound of potential gains. Stock splits and div
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UTSGGGR201H1phillipsWinter

GGR201H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Plate Tectonics, Geologic Time Scale, Mantle Convection

OC11269973 Page
19 Jan 2020
0
Result from application of physical and chemical forces to materials and landforms at earth"s surface. Processes wear and carve away at land surface. F
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UTSGGGR201H1phillipsWinter

GGR201H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3,4: Regolith, Saprolite, Parent Material

OC11269973 Page
19 Jan 2020
0
Chapter 3: weathering and soils: thin layer of mechanically broken and chemically altered rock, mixed with living and dead organic material defines tra
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UTSGGGR203H1harveyWinter

GGR203H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Electric Dipole Moment, Black Body, Energy Flux

OC11269973 Page
17 Jan 2020
0
2. 3 radiation laws derived from planck function (properties of blackbodies) Emission at all wavelengths increases as t increases. Wavelength at which
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UTSGGGR203H1harveyWinter

GGR203H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Electric Dipole Moment, Electric Field, Black Body

OC11269972 Page
17 Jan 2020
0
Emitted by all matter above 0k, in form of electromagnetic waves. Coupled, oscillating electric and magnetic fields that move out (at speed of light) i
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UTSGRSM341H1leeWinter

RSM341H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Lee Harvey Oswald, Gordon Ramsay, Logical Biconditional

OC11269973 Page
12 Jan 2020
0
Cannot be both or neither true or false. We might not know whether it is true or false. We don"t know if this is true or false, but know it must be one
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UTSGRSM412H1khalegheiWinter

RSM412H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Exploratory Data Analysis, Unsupervised Learning, Data Science

OC11269972 Page
12 Jan 2020
0
Key principles: data is a strategic asset, systematic process for knowledge extraction, sleeping with the data. Organisations need to invest in people
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UTSGGGR314H1Danny HarveyWinter

GGR314H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Radiative Forcing, Organofluorine Chemistry, Chlorofluorocarbon

OC11269976 Page
12 Jan 2020
0
Everything above 0k. -273. 15oc emits energy in form of electromagnetic radiation. Absorption of radiation warms an object, emissions cools an object.
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UTSGGGR201H1phillipsWinter

GGR201H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1 11 12: Continental Crust, Oceanic Crust, Continental Collision

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10 Jan 2020
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UTSGGGR201H1phillipsWinter

GGR201H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Radiocarbon Dating, Lichenometry, Remote Sensing

OC11269972 Page
9 Jan 2020
0
Manual surveying of fine-scale landscape features remain important tool. Gps relies on radio-based trilateration between constellation of broadcasting
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UTSGGGR203H1harveyWinter

GGR203H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Cloud Condensation Nuclei, Cryosphere, Evapotranspiration

OC11269972 Page
9 Jan 2020
0
Solar radiation reaching ocean surface: affects salinity which affects currents, reflected by clouds, cryosphere. Winds: sublimation, moves sea ice aro
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UTSGGGR203H1harveyWinter

GGR203H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Polar Easterlies, Hadley Cell, Atmospheric Circulation

OC11269972 Page
9 Jan 2020
0
Earth has warmed up by 10c in last 100 years. Lake levels were high in western us 18kya, relatively lower but still high in africa. Lakes were high in
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UTSGGGR314H1Danny HarveyWinter

GGR314H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Sulfur Hexafluoride, Exponential Decay, Anaerobic Digestion

OC11269972 Page
9 Jan 2020
0
January 6, 2020: solar radiation largely absorbed at earth"s surface, surface emits infrared (thermal radiation) Some is absorbed by clouds and greenho
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UTSGGGR201H1phillipsWinter

GGR201H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Last Glacial Maximum, Geomorphology, Palimpsest

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9 Jan 2020
0
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UTSGGGR201H1phillipsWinter

GGR201H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter Ch 1: Sediment Transport, Clay Minerals, Surface Runoff

OC11269973 Page
7 Jan 2020
0
Geomorphology: study of processes shaping earth"s surface and the landforms and deposits that they produce. Insights into how water and sediment move,
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UTSGGGR203H1harveyWinter

GGR203H1 Lecture 1: Lecture 1.1 Chapter 1 (Introduction)

OC11269972 Page
6 Jan 2020
0
January 6, 2020: everything can be derived from the 3 laws of conservation, conservation of energy, conservation of mass, conservation of momentum. 1.
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UTSGECO428H1furlongFall

ECO428H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Labour Power, Precious Metal, Wage Labour

OC11269973 Page
12 Dec 2019
0
Wage labor and capital cannot exist without each other but are mutually antagonistic. Resolution occurs when labor takes control of capital to abolish
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UTSGECO428H1furlongFall

ECO428H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Labour Power, Industrial Revolution, Technological Change

OC11269972 Page
12 Dec 2019
0
Differential rent exists from difference on marginal land vs earlier lands. Agriculture produces more surplus value than most other sectors. Competitio
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UTSGECO428H1furlongFall

ECO428H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Invariant Measure, Circulating Capital, Factor Price

OC11269972 Page
12 Dec 2019
0
If supply limitless, there is not price. "corn is not high because a rent is paid but rent is paid because corn is high: improvements that diminish dif
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UTSGECO428H1furlongFall

ECO428H1 Chapter Quesnay: ECO428H1 Chapter : Quesnay in Meek 1962 The Analysis

OC11269973 Page
12 Dec 2019
0
Advances the expenses agricultural work entails and pays revenue of proprietors. Sovereign, land owners, tithe-owners: lives off net product of cultiva
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UTSGECO428H1furlongFall

ECO428H1 Chapter Meek 1962: ECO428H1 Chapter Meek 196: ECO428H1 Chapter Meek 19: ECO428H1 Chapter Meek 1: ECO428H1 Chapter Meek : ECO428H1 Chapter : Meek 1962 The Economics of Physiocracy

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12 Dec 2019
0
17: mirabeau: wealth is the fruit which comes from the land for the use of men; the labor of men alone possesses the capacity to increase wealth. More
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UTSGECO428H1furlongFall

ECO428H1 Lecture 8: Lecture 8 Ricardo, Values

OC11269973 Page
12 Dec 2019
0
Primary political motivation was to eliminate corn laws. Corn laws maintained artificially high prices of grain in britain after napoleonic wars. Focus
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UTSGECO428H1furlongFall

ECO428H1 Chapter Duvyendak: ECO428H1 Chapter : Duyvendak Shang Yang as a Social Reformer

OC11269972 Page
12 Dec 2019
0
Duyvendak: shang yang as a social reformer: in ancient china only nobles hold land through some office. Farmers do not own land they cultivate: ching s
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