samuelvictor5826

samuelvictor5826

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samuelvictor5826

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Answer: B
Answer: 1 D
Answer:A
Answer: B

Which of the following distinguishes the sequences and function of prokaryotic from eukaryotic promoters?

Only prokaryotic promoters contain conserved sequences

Only eukaryotic promoters contain conserved sequences

Only in eukaryotes are accessory proteins required for binding of RNA polymerase

Only in prokaryotes are accessory proteins required for binding of RNA polymerase

None of the above

Answers (1) and (4)

Answers (2) and (3)

Amongst RNAs, which of the following RNA types found in cells are relatively unstable?

mRNA

rRNA

tRNA

snRNA

All are equally unstable

Answers (2) and 3)

Answers (2), (3), and (4)

What is relationship between poly (A) tail length and mRNA translation in eukaryotes?

There is no relationship

Poly (A) tails are involved in binding of mRNA to the tRNAs

Long poly (A) tails impart shortened translation to mRNAs

Long poly (A) tails impart lengthened translation to mRNAs

There are no poly (A) tails in eukaryotic mRNAs, they are only in prokaryotic mRNAs

Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) play a role in which of the following processes?

DNA replication functioning as primers

RNA synthesis functioning as transcription initiation factors

RNA processing functioning as catalysts of intron removal

Translation by linking the mRNA with the ribosome

Addition of the 5’-7-methylguanine (CAP)

What is the role of sigma protein in mRNA synthesis in prokaryotes?

Forms the primer for mRNA synthesis

Termination of mRNA synthesis

Binding of RNA polymerase to promoters

Forming stem-loop structures in mRNA

Degradation of mRNA

Protection of mRNA from degradation

None of the above, sigma protein has no role in mRNA synthesis

Answer: B

1. Which of the following distinguishes the sequences andfunction of prokaryotic from eukaryotic promoters?

Only prokaryotic promoters contain conserved sequences

Only eukaryotic promoters contain conserved sequences

Only in eukaryotes are accessory proteins required for bindingof RNA polymerase

Only in prokaryotes are accessory proteins required for bindingof RNA polymerase

None of the above

Answers (1) and (4)

Answers (2) and (3)

2. Amongst RNAs, which of the following RNA types found in cellsare relatively unstable?

mRNA

rRNA

tRNA

snRNA

All are equally unstable

Answers (2) and 3)

Answers (2), (3), and (4)

3. What is relationship between poly (A) tail length and mRNAtranslation in eukaryotes?

There is no relationship

Poly (A) tails are involved in binding of mRNA to the tRNAs

Long poly (A) tails impart shortened translation to mRNAs

Long poly (A) tails impart lengthened translation to mRNAs

There are no poly (A) tails in eukaryotic mRNAs, they are onlyin prokaryotic mRNAs

4. Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) play a role in which of thefollowing processes?

DNA replication functioning as primers

RNA synthesis functioning as transcription initiationfactors

RNA processing functioning as catalysts of intron removal

Translation by linking the mRNA with the ribosome

Addition of the 5’-7-methylguanine (CAP)

5. What is the role of sigma protein in mRNA synthesis inprokaryotes?

Forms the primer for mRNA synthesis

Termination of mRNA synthesis

Binding of RNA polymerase to promoters

Forming stem-loop structures in mRNA

Degradation of mRNA

Protection of mRNA from degradation

None of the above, sigma protein has no role in mRNAsynthesis

Answer: B

1. Which of the following distinguishes the sequences and function of prokaryotic from eukaryotic promoters?

A. Only prokaryotic promoters contain conserved sequences
B. Only eukaryotic promoters contain conserved sequences
C. Only in eukaryotics are assessory proteins required for binding of RNA polymerase
D. Only in prokaryotes are assessory proteins required for binding of RNA polymerase
E. None of the above
F. Answers (1) and (4)
G. Answers (2) and (3)

2. Amongst RNAs, which of the following RNA types found in cells are relatively unstable?

A. mRNA
B. rRNA
C. tRNA
D. snRNA
E. All are equally unstable
F. Answers (2) and (3)
G. Answers (2), (3), and (4)

3. What is the relationship between poly (A) tail length and mRNA translation in eukaryotes?

A. There is no relationship
B. Poly (A) tails are involved in binding of mRNA to the tRNAs
C. Long poly (A) tails impart shortened translation to mRNAs
D. Long poly (A) tails impart lengthened translation to mRNAs
E. There are no poly (A) tails in eukaryotic mRNAs, they are only in prokaryotic mRNAs

4. Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) play a role in which of the following processes?

A. DNA replication functioning as primers
B. RNA synthesis function as transcription initiation factors
C. RNA processing functioning as catalysts of intron removal
D. Translation by linking the mRNA with the ribosome
E. Addition of the 5'-7-methylguanine (CAP)

5. What is the role of sigma protein in mRNA synthesis in prokaryotes?

A. Forms the primer for mRNA synthesis
B. Termination of mRNA synthesis
C. Binding of RNA polymerase to promoters
D. Forming stem-loop structures in mRNA
E. Degradation of mRNA
F. Protection of mRNA from degradation
G. None of the above, sigma protein has no role in mRNA synthesis
Answer: 1 For example, a prokaryotic promoter is observed to have two hexameri...
Answer: Poly(A) tail size appears to play a major role in mRNA quality control...
Answer: A

1. Which of the following distinguishes the sequences and function of prokaryotic from eukaryotic promoters?

Only prokaryotic promoters contain conserved sequences

Only eukaryotic promoters contain conserved sequences

Only in eukaryotes are accessory proteins required for binding of RNA polymerase

Only in prokaryotes are accessory proteins required for binding of RNA polymerase

None of the above

Answers (1) and (4)

Answers (2) and (3)

2. Amongst RNAs, which of the following RNA types found in cells are relatively unstable?

mRNA

rRNA

tRNA

snRNA

All are equally unstable

Answers (2) and 3)

Answers (2), (3), and (4)

3. What is relationship between poly (A) tail length and mRNA translation in eukaryotes?

There is no relationship

Poly (A) tails are involved in binding of mRNA to the tRNAs

Long poly (A) tails impart shortened translation to mRNAs

Long poly (A) tails impart lengthened translation to mRNAs

There are no poly (A) tails in eukaryotic mRNAs, they are only in prokaryotic mRNAs

4. Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) play a role in which of the following processes?

DNA replication functioning as primers

RNA synthesis functioning as transcription initiation factors

RNA processing functioning as catalysts of intron removal

Translation by linking the mRNA with the ribosome

Addition of the 5’-7-methylguanine (CAP)

5. What is the role of sigma protein in mRNA synthesis in prokaryotes?

Forms the primer for mRNA synthesis

Termination of mRNA synthesis

Binding of RNA polymerase to promoters

Forming stem-loop structures in mRNA

Degradation of mRNA

Protection of mRNA from degradation

None of the above, sigma protein has no role in mRNA synthesis

Answer: B
Answer: B
Answer: C
Answer: 1
Answer: D

1.) Which of the following describe a difference in transcription between prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Select all correct answers.

A - Control of transcription in eukaryotes is affected by chromatin structure, which is lacking in prokaryotes.

B - Specificity and efficiency of transcription are mediated primarily by DNA-binding proteins in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes.

C - Bacterial transcriptional control sequences are generally much closer to the genes being transcribed than those of eukaryotes.

D - Eukaryotes do not have operons and therefore do not transcribe genes with similar functions together.

2.) Which of the following types of RNA are transcribed by RNA polymerase II? Select all correct answers

A - snRNA

B - tRNA

C - rRNA

D - mRNA

E - siRNA

F - miRNA

3.) Which of the following statements regarding eukaryotic transcription are TRUE? Select all correct answers

A - General transcription factors are designated TFII followed by a number, and they function in initiation of transcription across the eukaryotic genome.

B - RNA polymerase II has a critical carboxy-terminal domain that is phosphorylated during active transcription.

C - The most highly transcribed eukaryotic genes contain CpG islands upstream of their transcription start site rather than TATA boxes.

D - Distal enhancers, like promoter-proximal elements, are composed of several small, 6-10 bp functional sequence elements.

4.) Which of the following does NOT correctly match a molecular technique with the purpose for which it is used?

A - Linker scanning mutagenesis: identification of specific sequences that control transcription in a large regulatory region

B - DNase I footprinting: identification of the portion of a specific DNA sequence to which a particular known protein binds

C - Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP): genome-wide identification of the DNA binding sites of a specific protein

D - EMSA (electrophoretic mobility shift assay): detection of protein-protein binding activity of transcription factors upon protein purification.

5.) Which of the following statements is TRUE?

A - Multiple types of activation domains are activated by the binding of other molecules such as co-activators and ligands.

B - Hormone binding to nuclear receptors induces their movement from the nucleus to the nucleolus in order to promote rDNA transcription.

C - The amino acid sequence of the linkage between activator and DNA-binding domains in transcriptional activator proteins is critical for their function.

D - Activation domains across eukaryotic species are often rich in basic amino acid residues.

Answer: A
Answer: True
Answer: D

1. Two bird species have different mating calls, occupydifferent habitats in nature, and when they hybridize, the hybridsare infertile. Which isolating mechanisms maintain thesespecies?

mechanical isolation, hybrid sterility, geographicalisolation

ecological isolation, mechanical isolation, hybrid sterility

geographical isolation, temporal isolation, behavioralisolation

ecological isolation, behavioral isolation, and hybridsterility

2 IS SKIPPED

3. Species formation among alpine buttercups in New Zealand waspromoted by

geographical isolation.

mechanical isolation.

temporal isolation.

periodic isolation by glaciation.

gametic isolation.

4. The model that assumes that evolution proceeds with slowsuccessive change in a given evolutionary line is referred toas

successive descent model.

gradualism.

the allopatric model.

punctuated equilibrium.

the sympatric model.

5. In the southeastern U.S., two species of wild lettuce(Lactuca) do not usually form hybrids, because they bloomat different seasons. The means of isolation appears to be

prezygotic and temporal.

postzygotic and ecological.

prezygotic and geographical.

postzygotic and behavioral.

prezygotic and mechanical.

6. Males of several marsupial species have forked penises thatare incompatible with female placental mammals. This is an exampleof what type of isolating mechanism?

mechanical incompatibility

temporal isolation

hybrid sterility

ecological isolation

prevention of gamete fusion

7. A single seed lands on one of a group of isolated islands.Several million years later, its descendants have evolved into anumber of new species on the different islands, representing avariety of trees, vines, and herbs. At that point in time, we havean example of

parapatric speciation.

microevolution.

adaptive radiation.

genetic drift.

mutation.

8. A type of isolating mechanism that leads to reproductiveisolation after a hybrid zygote has formed is called a_____________ isolating mechanism.

postzygotic

hybridization

adaptive

prezygotic

differential

9. A virgin pine forest covers a valley, and one of theinhabitants is a red squirrel species. A large volcanic eruptionoccurs and separates the valley with a huge lava flow that thesquirrels cannot cross, thus producing two isolated populations ofsquirrels. What change needs to occur for the two populations ofsquirrels to become separate species?

The fur color of the two squirrel populations must becomedistinct.

The two squirrel populations must eat distinct species ofplants.

The area that the squirrel populations occupy changes so thatthe squirrel populations exist in distinct habitats.

The two squirrel populations select mates using the same sexualbehavior.

The two squirrel populations become reproductively isolated.

10. An example of temporal isolation would be

one plant species is pollinated by bees and a second plantspecies is pollinated by moths.

one plant species blooms in June-July and a second plant speciesblooms in August-September.

two plant species live on the same mountainside but one lives onrocky outcrops and the other in open meadows.

two plant species have incompatible gametes.

Answer: 1 geographical isolation
Answer: Geographical isolation

Please answer all.

3) What is the probability of each of the following sets of parents producing the given genotypes in their

offspring?

Parents Offspring Probability

a. BBDD x BbDD BbDD

b. BbDd x BbDd BBDd

c. BbDd x bbDd BbDD

d. bbDd X BBdd bbdd

4) Duchenne muscular dystrophy is due to a sex-linked recessive gene. A normal male and a

normal female have children. Their first child (a boy) has Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

What are the possible genotypes of a second son (if they had one)?

What are the chances their third son, if they had one, would have the disorder?

What are the genotypes of the mother and the father?

5) In a species of frog the gene for color shows codominance. Frogs that are black and frogs that

are yellow are homozygous. Frog with one black allele and one yellow allele are black and

yellow (i.e. their skin is black with yellow spots). For each of the following construct a

Punnett square and give phenotypic and genotypes and the ratios of the offspring.


a) a yellow frog mates with a black frog
b) a yellow frog mates with a black and yellow frog (i.e. black frog with yellow spots)
c) a black frog mates with a black and yellow frog (i.e. black frog with yellow spots)
d) two black and yellow frogs

6) What are the odds of a couple having a child with blood type Bi if the mother’s blood type is

heterozygous for A and their father’s blood type is heterozygous for B?

7) For each phenotype determine the genotype.

Black spots are dominant to brown spots

Homozygous black _________

Brown spots __________

Long ears are dominant to short ears

Heterozygous ____________

Homozygous for long ears ____________

8) White pigmentation is recessive to red.

Rr x Rr - What percentage of the offspring will be red?________

Rr x rr - What percentage of the offspring will be white? _______

Answer: Count the total number of boxes in your Punnett Square. This gives you...
2 Genetics -Match the terms with the most suitable description.
(Points : 16)
Potential Matches:
1 : recessive
2 : sex-linked
3 : pleiotropy
4 : carrier
5 : dominant
6 : phenotype
7 : polygenic
8 : genotype
Answer
: An allele that can be expressed byan individual that is heterozygous.
: The genetic make-up of anindividual.
: The control of more than onephenotypic character by a single gene.
: The visible physical expression ofan individual's genetic make-up.
: An allele that can only beexpressed when an individual is homozygous.
: A trait controlled by more thanjust a single pair of alleles.
: A trait controlled by a genelocated on either the X or Y chromosomes.
: An individual carrying only oneallele of a recessively inherited disorder.
3. Evolution- Match the terms with the most suitable description.
(Points : 16)
Potential Matches:
1 : hybrid sterility
2 : habitat isolation
3 : hybrid inviability
4 : geographic isolation
5 : mechanical isolation
6 : gamete mortality
7 : temporal isolation
8 : behavioral isolation
Answer
: Because of a single mutation in adevelopmental gene, two closely related species of wasps have aslightly different anatomy of their sex organs making interbreedingimpossible.
: Two species of snakes aremorphologically very similar but breed during differentseasons.
: Two similar species of treehopperslive and feed on two separate species of trees.
: Males of two species of birds usedifferent mating dances to attract their mates.
: Due to a geographic barrier, asmall portion of a population remains isolated and its gene pooldiverges from that of the original population.
: Sperm from a male of one speciesdies in the reproductive tract of the female of a different speciesbefore fertilization can occur
: Mules are a cross between a donkeyand a horse; they are viable, healthy animals, but they cannotreproduce.
: A cross between two species ofsalamanders yields offspring, but they do not survive long enoughto reproduce
Answer: The control of more than onephenotypic character
Answer: Behavioral Isolation
Answer: Temporal isolation
Answer: False
Answer: C
Answer: A
Answer: B

1) E. coli cells are growing in medium containing lactose but no glucose. Briefly describe the consequence of the following changes (one to two sentences for each condition):

a. Addition of high concentration of glucose. b. A mutation that inactivates galactoside permease. c. A mutation that inactivates beta-galactosidase. d. A mutation that affects binding of CAP to c-AMP e. A mutation that affects binding of inducer to LacI f. A lac operator mutation that deletes all of the O1

2) Describe the allosteric regulation model for transcription termination and briefly indicate how this model can explain both Rho dependent and Rho independent termination reactions.

3)Please provide brief (one sentence) answers:

a) The Mycoplasma chromosome codes for 500 genes, yet it has about 20 promoters. Provide a brief explanation for how this is possible.

b) How many seconds would it take the bacterial RNA polymerase to synthesize an mRNA of 5,000 bases?

c) How many mistakes would the bacterial RNA polymerase make while synthesizing an mRNA of 30,000 bases?

d) Sigma (?) protein by itself does not bind to promoter sites. Predict the effect on transcription of a mutation enabling ? to bind tightly to the –35 region in the absence of other subunits of RNA polymerase.

e) What is the structure of the most common transcription terminator signal in E. coli, and what are 2 conserved features of the RNA sequence of this structure?

f) Why is RNA synthesis not as carefully monitored for errors, as is DNA synthesis?

4) You started work in a transcription lab working a with a novel bacteria phage. You isolated an enzyme that has RNA polymerase activity, and you discovered that your new viral RNA polymerase has a unique property. Unlike E. coli RNA polymerase, which prefers starting transcription with ATP, your new viral polymerase prefers starting transcription with GMP. You know the directionality of RNA chain growth (3’-to-5’ or 5-to-3’) by your new RNAP.

A. Explain in what direction (3’-to-5’ or 5-to-3’) this enzyme synthesizes RNA and how you know this.

B. What other simple experiment can you do to show that your conclusion is correct, provided you have full access to all rNTPs, 3’-dNTPs, 2’-dNTPs?

Answer: 1 A
Answer: B
Answer: B
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