INTR2010 Study Guide - Final Guide: Middle Power, Cairns Group, Anzus

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(WK 7)
AUSTRALIA: GEOGRAPHY BEFORE HISTORY
Australia is a classic, self-identifying middle power, supposedly punching above its
weight in international affairs. We might ask today how Australia is responding to the
rising challenges and opportunities presented by the rapid changes in the Asia-Pacific
region
E.g. how well is Australia managing its relationship with China today given
that there is a diplomatic freeze, and a lot of tension, and numerous
Australian politics getting up in Parliament, and accusing citizens of bribing
UN officials
All Australian governments have declared their support for a rules-based
international order
Rules-based order, liberal international order
E.g. “the long and prosperous peace” depended on the continuation of
“the liberal rules-based order” Foreign Minister, Julie Bishop
The leadership of the US and the growing weight of China lie at the centre of the
foreign policy debate for Australia
AUSTRALIA GEOGRAPHY BEFORE HISTORY?
Australia and empire?
From colony to dominion
-British empire and strategic remoteness
-Australia settlement  White Australia and Japan as “threat”
First and Second World War
-Shocked and insular colonial power
-Statute of Westminster (1931, ’42)
-Fall of Singapore and opening up
Great and powerful friends
Continued dependence on “great and powerful friends”
-“Australia looks to America”…but hangs on to Britain
The long transition
-Formation of ANZUS (1952)
-Suez Crisis (1956)
-Vietnam War
-Britain joins EEC (1973)
Decolonization
Indonesian independence  Cautious but supportive
Malaysia  Malaysia and Indonesia confrontation  Australia supports Malaysia
Papua New Guinea  Residual colonialism
Communism and containment  forward defense and Vietnam
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Australia and Asian tripolarity
Sino-US rapprochement  Whitlam’s visit (1971) and recognition of PRC
Australia’s shifting outlook:
-Whitlam: ending “White Australia,” balancing PRC & USSR, PNG independence
-Fraser: Vietnamese refugees
-Hawke: regional engagement and Defence of Australia
Re(discovering) Asia
Domestic liberalization  tariff reductions, financial deregulation, floating dollar,
etc.
Asia’s economic boom:
-Liberalization and opening up
-Japan, Korea, China and Taiwan
Open regionalism and middle power diplomacy  Multilateralism through Cairns
Group and APEC
Post-GFC Uncertainty
GFC wrecks North America and Europe, but Australia in Asia
Australia struggles with shifting balance in Asia
-Rudd as Asian specialist
-Gillard as Asian novice
-Abbott: Anglophile in Jakarta
-Turnbull as cosmopolitan nationalist
Foreign policy traditions
Broad traditions  Labor’s liberal internationalism vs. Coalition’s realism
Strategic weaknesses  History and geography disjunction and reluctance to make
strategic choices
Fear of abandonment  great and powerful friends, emphasis on rule-based order,
engagement with Asia
Australia as a middle power
“Punching above its weight”?
-Gareth Evans: an effective middle power  creative coalition building, expertise,
imagination and credibility
-And created by FM Evans in 1990s
However…
-Regular cycles of middle power diplomacy through history
-Just how powerful is Australia?
Australia and China
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Document Summary

Australia is a classic, self-identifying middle power, supposedly punching above its weight in international affairs. We might ask today how australia is responding to the rising challenges and opportunities presented by the rapid changes in the asia-pacific region. E. g. how well is australia managing its relationship with china today given that there is a diplomatic freeze, and a lot of tension, and numerous. Australian politics getting up in parliament, and accusing citizens of bribing. All australian governments have declared their support for a rules-based international order. The long and prosperous peace depended on the continuation of. The liberal rules-based order foreign minister, julie bishop. The leadership of the us and the growing weight of china lie at the centre of the foreign policy debate for australia. Australia settlement white australia and japan as threat . Continued dependence on great and powerful friends . Australia looks to america but hangs on to britain. Malaysia malaysia and indonesia confrontation australia supports malaysia.

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